Una de Gato GP (30)
Una de Gato GP contains the standardized extract (4:1) of Uncaria tomentosa bark (3% total oxindole alkaloids) that guarantees its efficacy. The content of one capsule (350 mg) is equivalent to 1400 mg of crude herb.
The product has been manufactured using high quality pure raw materials and the technology that ensures all their beneficial properties intact, in strict compliance with GMP and TÜV regulations.
Exclusive Santegra® product Una de Gato GP contains standardized Uncaria tomentosa bark extract. Uncaria tomentosa, commonly known as Una de gato or cat’s claw grows wild in the Amazon region of Peru and neighboring countries between 400 and 800 meters above sea level. It can reach several inches in diameter and 1,000 feet in height. Cat’s claw gets its name from the sharp thorns on its stem, resembling the claws of a cat.
Cat’s Claw has been used by the Native Americans of Peru for 2000 years and to this very day it is thought to be sacred, the “Miracle cure for all diseases”.
Cat’s claw has been traditionally used to treat inflammations, fever, asthma, wounds, tumors, arthritis, rheumatism, diabetes, gastric ulcers, diarrhea, urinary tract infections, skin problems, as a tonic, and even as a contraceptive. (1)
Numerous studies of the biological activity of Uncaria tomentosa have shown that active constituents in cat’s claw boost the activity of the immune system, reduce inflammation. Cat’s Claw may also offer antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor and antimutagenic properties, can be used to treat parasites. (1)
The inner bark of cat’s claw is a rich source of valuable biologically active constituents.
It contains pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids (pteropodine, isopteropodine, speciophylline, uncarine, mitraphylline, isomitraphylline) and tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids (rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, corynoxeine, isocorynoxeine); quinovic acid glycosides; proanthocyanidins; polyphenols; triterpines and the plant sterols.
Cat’s claw extract demonstrates powerful free radical quenching properties. (5, 9) The antioxidant activity may be attributed to the presence of alkaloids and polyphenols. (1)
In the late 1980's oxindole alkaloids were proven to be effective immunostimulants. It is considered that cat's claw is able to enhance overall immunity while increasing stamina and energy in patients who suffer from physical and mental exhaustion due to an overactive or stressful lifestyle. (3) Cat’s claw can increase or reduce the reactivity of the immune system, depending on the initial status, can stimulate a weak immune system and suppress an over-reactive immune system. (4)
Cat’s claw is supposed to have antitumor effect due to its oxindole alkaloids content. (1, 10, 11, 18) Can be useful as an adjuvant treatment in reducing the adverse effects of chemotherapy. (16) Recent literature reports cytostatic and anti-mutagenic action of Uncaria tomentosa. (6, 11) The Uncaria tomentosa extract has been shown to enhance DNA repair. (7, 12, 16)
The proanthocyanidins, isolated from the bark of U. tomentosa, are considered responsible for both anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity (Aquino et al., 1989).
Quinovic acid glycosides were shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties (Aquino et al., 1991).
Due to its anti-inflammatory action Uncaria tomentosa may be useful for gastrointestinal complaints, such as gastritis, stomach and duodenal ulcers.
Cat’s claw can be an effective treatment for osteoarthritis due to its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. (8)
Uncaria tomentosa presented antimicrobial activity on Enterobacteriaceae, S. mutans and Staphylococcus spp. Isolates «in vitro». (13)
Uncaria tomentosa extract improved glucose homeostasis and reverted non-alcoholic fatty liver disease to a benign hepatic steatosis condition in the animal study and these effects were associated with the attenuation of liver inflammation. (14)
Oxindole alkaloids display the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and thrombosis, lower blood pressure, and may be useful in prevention of heart diseases, as well as plant sterols that can regulate lipid metabolism.
Some of the newer research indicates that cat's claw might be helpful to people with Alzheimer's disease. (15)
Santegra®’s product Una de Gato GP contains the standardized extract (4:1) of Uncaria tomentosa bark (3% total oxindole alkaloids) that increases its efficacy.
The content of one capsule is equivalent to 1400 mg of crude herb.
El Dorado secret has been discovered by modern science and now it is available to you.
Take 1 capsule a day with a meal and a glass of water.
Viral diseases are an increasing worldwide health concern. As a consequence, the discovery of new natural antiviral agents is important more than ever.
The use of cat's claw dates back to the Inca civilization. For hundreds of years the Indian tribes have used the inner bark of the tree to prepare a medicinal tea.
Una de gato is considered a sacred plant among the Ashaninkas and other indigenous Peruvian Amazonian tribes. For centuries, the miraculous healing properties of Cat's Claw were secret, known only to the shamans of the Amazon, who considered that the plant have life-giving properties.
In the early 1970's an Austrian researcher, Klaus Keplinger was introduced to medicinal plants used by the Asháninka Indians of Peru.
In those days Uncaria tomentosa was still completely unknown to Western medicine. According to Keplinger, the herb serves as a means of "regulating the physical and spiritual worlds" for these tribal groups. (2)
Keplinger began studying the properties of una de gato and was granted US patents for isolating plant's major active constituents - oxindole alkaloids. In July 1989 was issued U.S. Patent No US4844901A, and a second patent No US4940725A, was issued in July 1990.
There are six oxindole alkaloids most prevalent in the Cat's Claw bark, known as: isopteropodine, pteropodine, mitraphylline, isomitraphylline, rhynchophylline, and isorynchophylline.
The patent documents describe four of these alkaloids (isopteropodine, pteropodine, isomitaphylline, and isorhynchophylline) as "proven suitable for unspecified stimulation of the immune system." The most immunologically active alkaloid, according to the patent is isopteropodine.
Oxindole alkaloids (rhynchophylline) have been shown in laboratory testing to display an ability to inhibit platelet aggregation and thrombosis, lower blood pressure, thus may be useful in cardiovascular disease prevention. (19)
Cat’s Claw contains other beneficial constituents including triterpenes, proanthocyanidins, polyphenols, glycosides, and the plant sterols beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol.
There are 34 species of the genus Uncaria, but Uncaria tomentosa offers the most promise as a therapeutic agent. Consumers should check the Cat's Claw bottles they buy for "Uncaria tomentosa" and choose from a reputable company.
The antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the Uncaria tomentosa bark were evaluated. The analysis included trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), superoxide radical scavenging activity (SOD) and quantitation of total tannins (TT) and total phenolic compounds (TPC). The obtained results indicate high antioxidant capacity of the studied materials in comparison to the other extracts of fruits, vegetables, cereals and medicinal plants. Higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of the alcoholic preparations -- TEAC=0.57 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.52 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.39 U/mg than of the aqueous preparation -- TEAC=0.34 mmol of Trolox/g, PRTC=0.19 mmol of Trolox/g and SOD=0.10 U/mg were observed. These results might suggest higher medical suitability of alcoholic extracts. (5)
In this research the solvent extracts were prepared from U. tomentosa inner bark and their antiproliferative activities against Caco2 and HeLa cancer cells were determined by an MTS based cell proliferation assay. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. Methanolic and aqueous U. tomentosa extracts were strong inhibitors of Caco2 and HeLa cell proliferation, with IC50 values generally below 1500 µg/mL. The methanolic extract was particularly effective, with IC50 values of 881 and 763 µg/mL against Caco2 and HeLa cells, respectively.
Cell imaging studies detected morphological features consistent with apoptosis in Caco2 cells exposed to the methanolic and aqueous U. tomentosa extracts, indicating that these extracts are functioning by cytotoxic mechanisms.
All U. tomentosa extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia franciscana bioassay, with LC50 values substantially >1000 µg/mL.
The potent antiproliferative activity and lack of toxicity of the methanolic and aqueous U. tomentosa inner bark extracts indicates their potential in the treatment and prevention of some cancers. (6)
Female W/Fu rats were gavaged daily with a water-soluble extract (C-MED-100) of Uncaria tomentosa supplied commercially by CampaMed at the doses of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg for 8 consecutive weeks. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was significantly increased in splenocytes of rats treated at the doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg. White blood cells (WBC) from the C-MED-100 treatment groups of 40 and 80 mg/kg for 8 weeks or 160 mg/kg for 4 weeks were significantly elevated compared with controls (P < 0.05).
In a human volunteer study, C-MED-100 was given daily at 5 mg/kg for 6 consecutive weeks to four healthy adult males. No toxicity was observed and again, WBC were significantly elevated (P < 0.05) after supplement.
Repair of DNA single strand breaks (SSB) and double strand breaks (DSB) 3 h after 12 Gy whole body irradiation of rats were also significantly improved in C-MED-100 treated animals (P < 0.05). The LD50 and MTD of a single oral dose of C-MED-100 in the rat were observed to be greater than 8 g/kg. Although the rats were treated daily with U. tomentosa extracts at the doses of 10-80 mg/kg for 8 weeks or 160 mg/kg for 4 weeks, no acute or chronic toxicity signs were observed symptomatically. In addition, no body weight, food consumption, organ weight and kidney, liver, spleen, and heart pathological changes were found to be associated with C-MED-100 treatment. (7)
To evaluate safety and clinical efficacy of a plant extract from the pentacyclic chemotype of Uncaria tomentosa (UT) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Forty patients undergoing sulfasalazine or hydroxychloroquine treatment were enrolled in a randomized 52 week, 2 phase study. During the first phase (24 weeks, double blind, placebo controlled), patients were treated with UT extract or placebo. In the second phase (28 weeks) all patients received the plant extract.
Twenty-four weeks of treatment with the UT extract resulted in a reduction of the number of painful joints compared to placebo (by 53.2% vs 24.1%; p = 0.044). Patients receiving the UT extract only during the second phase experienced a reduction in the number of painful (p = 0.003) and swollen joints (p = 0.007) and the Ritchie Index (p = 0.004) compared to the values after 24 weeks of placebo. Only minor side effects were observed.
Cat’s claw is an effective treatment for osteoarthritis. (8)
The aim of this study was to determine the proposed anti-inflammatory properties of cat’s claw. Specifically: (i) does a bark extract of cat’s claw protect against oxidant-induced stress in vitro, and (ii) to determine if UG modifies transcriptionally regulated events.
Cell death was determined in two cell lines, RAW 264.7 and HT29 in response to peroxynitrite (PN, 300 microM). Gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in HT29 cells, direct effects on nitric oxide and peroxynitrite levels, and activation of NF-kappaB in RAW 264.7 cells as influenced by UG were assessed.
Chronic intestinal inflammation was induced in rats with indomethacin (7.5 mg/kg), with UG administered orally in the drinking water (5 mg/mL).
The administration of UG (100 microg/mL) attenuated (P < 0.05) peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis in HT29 (epithelial) and RAW 264.7 cells (macrophage). Cat’s claw inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS gene expression, nitrite formation, cell death and inhibited the activation of NF-kappaB. Cat’s claw markedly attenuated indomethacin-enteritis as evident by reduced myeloperoxidase activity, morphometric damage and liver metallothionein expression.
Cat’s claw protects cells against oxidative stress and negated the activation of NF-kappaB. These studies provide a mechanistic evidence for the widely held belief that cat’s claw is an effective anti-inflammatory agent. (9)
Uncaria tomentosa inner bark extract is a popular plant remedy used in folk medicine to treat tumor and inflammatory processes. In this study, the anti-tumoral effects of its pentacyclic alkaloid mitraphylline were investigated. Furthermore, its growth-inhibitory and cytotoxic effects on glioma GAMG and neuroblastoma SKN-BE(2) cell lines were studied using cyclophosphamide and vincristine as controls. A colter counter was used to determine viable cell numbers, followed by application of the tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium], inner salt, colorimetric method to evaluate cell viability in this cytotoxicity assay. Micromolar concentrations of mitraphylline (from 5 to 40 microM) inhibited the growth of both cell lines. It inhibited the growth of the two cell lines studied in a dose-dependent manner. The IC(50) values were 12.3 microM (30h) for SKN-BE(2) and 20 microM (48 h) for GAMG, respectively. This action suggests that mitraphylline is a new and promising agent in the treatment of human neuroblastoma and glioma. (10)
The present study investigates the effects of some extracts and their chromatographic fractions from the bark of U. tomentosa on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Our data indicated that, in addition to the antimutagenic activity, U. tomentosa extracts and fractions exert a direct antiproliferative activity on MCF7. The bioassay-directed fractionation from barks and leaves resulted in the isolation of two active fractions, which displayed an IC50 of 10 mg/ml and 20 mg/ml, respectively and an antiproliferative effect, with about 90% of inhibition at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. (11)
The Uncaria tomentosa water extracts (C-Med-100) have been shown to enhance DNA repair, mitogenic response and leukocyte recovery after chemotherapy-induced DNA damage in vivo. In this study, the effect of C-Med-100 supplement was evaluated in a human volunteer study. Twelve apparently healthy adults working in the same environment were randomly assigned into 3 groups with age and gender matched. One group was daily supplemented with a 250 mg tablet containing an aqueous extract of Uncaria tomentosa of C-Med-100, and another group with a 350 mg tablet, for 8 consecutive weeks. DNA repair after induction of DNA damage by a standard dose of hydrogen peroxide was measured 3 times before supplement and 3 times after the supplement for the last 3 weeks of the 8 week-supplement period. There were no drug-related toxic responses to C-Med-100 supplement when judged in terms of clinical symptoms, serum clinical chemistry, whole blood analysis and leukocyte differential counts. There was a statistically significant decrease of DNA damage and a concomitant increase of DNA repair in the supplement groups (250 and 350 mg/day) when compared with non-supplemented controls (p < 0.05). There was also an increased tendency of PHA induced lymphocyte proliferation in the treatment groups. Taken together, this trial has confirmed the earlier results obtained in the rat model when estimating DNA repair enhancement by C-Med-100. (12)
Uncaria tomentosa is considered a medicinal plant used over centuries by the Peruvian population as an alternative treatment for several diseases. Many microorganisms usually inhabit the human oral cavity and under certain conditions can become etiologic agents of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of different concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa on different strains of microorganisms isolated from the human oral cavity. Micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa was tested in vitro to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on selected microbial strains. The tested strains were oral clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus spp., Candida albicans, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested concentrations of Uncaria tomentosa ranged from 0.25–5% in Müeller-Hinton agar. Three percent Uncaria tomentosa inhibited 8% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 52% of S. mutans and 96% of Staphylococcus spp. The tested concentrations did not present inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. It could be concluded that micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa presented antimicrobial activity on Enterobacteriaceae, S. mutans and Staphylococcus spp. isolates. (13)
We investigated the effect of the crude herbal extract from Uncaria tomentosa (UT) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in two models of obesity: high fat diet (HFD) and genetically obese (ob/ob) mice. Both obese mouse models were insulin resistant and exhibited an abundance of lipid droplets in the hepatocytes and inflammatory cell infiltration in the liver, while only the HFD group had collagen deposition in the perivascular space of the liver. UT treatment significantly reduced liver steatosis and inflammation in both obese mouse models. Furthermore, serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 was reduced by 25% in the HFD mice treated with UT.
Overall, UT treated animals exhibited higher insulin sensitivity as compared to vehicle administration. In conclusion, Uncaria tomentosa extract improved glucose homeostasis and reverted NAFLD to a benign hepatic steatosis condition and these effects were associated with the attenuation of liver inflammation in obese mice. (14)
Brain aging and Alzheimer's disease both demonstrate the accumulation of beta-amyloid protein containing "plaques" and tau protein containing "tangles" that contribute to accelerated memory loss and cognitive decline. In the present investigation we identified a specific plant extract and its constituents as a potential alternative natural solution for preventing and reducing both brain "plaques and tangles". PTI-00703 cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa from a specific Peruvian source), a specific and natural plant extract from the Amazon rain forest, was identified as a potent inhibitor and reducer of both beta-amyloid fibrils (the main component of "plaques") and tau protein paired helical filaments/fibrils (the main component of "tangles"). PTI-00703 cat's claw demonstrated both the ability to prevent formation/aggregation and disaggregate preformed Aβ fibrils (1-42 and 1-40) and tau protein tangles/filaments. The disaggregation/dissolution of Aβ fibrils occurred nearly instantly when PTI-00703 cat's claw and Aβ fibrils were mixed together as shown by a variety of methods including Thioflavin T fluorometry, Congo red staining, Thioflavin S fluorescence and electron microscopy. Sophisticated structural elucidation studies identified the major fractions and specific constituents within PTI-00703 cat's claw responsible for both the observed "plaque" and "tangle" inhibitory and reducing activity. Specific proanthocyanidins (i.e. epicatechin dimers and variants thereof) are newly identified polyphenolic components within Uncaria tomentosa that possess both "plaque and tangle" reducing and inhibitory activity. One major identified specific polyphenol within PTI-00703 cat's claw was epicatechin-4β-8-epicatechin (i.e. an epicatechin dimer known as proanthocyanidin B2) that markedly reduced brain plaque load and improved short-term memory in younger and older APP "plaque-producing" (TASD-41) transgenic mice (bearing London and Swedish mutations). Proanthocyanidin B2 was also a potent inhibitor of brain inflammation as shown by reduction in astrocytosis and gliosis in TASD-41 transgenic mice. Blood-brain-barrier studies in Sprague-Dawley rats and CD-1 mice indicated that the major components of PTI-00703 cat's claw crossed the blood-brain-barrier and entered the brain parenchyma within 2 minutes of being in the blood. The discovery of a natural plant extract from the Amazon rain forest plant (i.e. Uncaria tomentosa or cat's claw) as both a potent "plaque and tangle" inhibitor and disaggregator is postulated to represent a potential breakthrough for the natural treatment of both normal brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. (15)
Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm affecting women worldwide. Some of the recommended treatments involve chemotherapy whose toxic effects include leukopenia and neutropenia. This study assessed the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa (Ut) in reducing the adverse effects of chemotherapy through a randomized clinical trial. Patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma-Stage II, who underwent a treatment regimen known as FAC (Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide), were divided into two groups: the UtCa received chemotherapy plus 300 mg dry Ut extract per day and the Ca group that only received chemotherapy and served as the control experiment. Blood samples were collected before each one of the six chemotherapy cycles and, immunological parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress were analyzed. Uncaria tomentosa reduced the neutropenia caused by chemotherapy and was also able to restore cellular DNA damage. We concluded that Ut is an effective adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. (16)
A human intervention study was carried out using male volunteers attending a General Practice Clinic in New York City involving comparison of individuals supplemented with 350 mg x 2 C-Med-100 daily dose for two months with untreated controls for their abilities to respond to a 23 valent pneumococcal vaccine. C-Med-100 is a novel nutraceutical extract from the South American plant Uncaria tomentosa or Cat's Claw which is known to possess immune enhancing and anti-inflammatory properties in animals. There were no toxic side effects observed as judged by medical examination, clinical chemistry and blood cell analysis. However, statistically significant immune enhancement for the individuals on C-Med-100 supplement was observed by (i) an elevation in the lymphocyte/neutrophil ratios of peripheral blood and (ii) a reduced decay in the 12 serotype antibody titer responses to pneumococcal vaccination at 5 months. (17)
Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa aqueous extract in squamous carcinoma cells.
We have produced an aqueous extract from Uncaria tomentosa (UT-ex) and analyzed its effects on squamous carcinoma cells and immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes.
We have evaluated cell proliferation, apoptosis and the level of reactive oxygen species following UT-ex treatment. UT-ex affected cell cycle progression and reduced cell viability in a dose and time-dependent manner. From a mechanistic point of view, this delay in cell growth coincided with the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, PARP1 cleavage was associated to the reduction of Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) 36 kDa, a nuclear prosurvival factor involved in DNA damage repair. These data indicate that UT-exinduced cell death can be ascribed, at least in part, to its ability both to induce oxidative DNA damage and antagonize the mechanism of DNA repair relying upon YB-1 activity. They also show that non metastatic SCCs are more susceptible to UT-ex treatment than untransformed keratinocytes supporting the use of UT-ex for the treatment of precancerous and early forms of squamous cell carcinomas. Preliminary chemical investigation of UT-ex revealed the presence of hydrophilic low-medium molecular weight metabolites with anticancer potential towards squamous carcinoma cells. Being at the interface between oxidative stress and molecular mechanisms controlling cell proliferation and DNA damage repair, the YB1 protein might not only provide a survival advantage to error-prone cancer cells, but also protect them from chemotherapy-induced We have clear evidence that Uncaria tomentosa water extracts contains bioactive molecules that interfere with the proteasome-mediated YB-1 proteolytic cleavage thus reducing the capacity of cells to effectively repair damaged DNA. Our study indicates that Uncaria Tomentosa pro-apoptotic activity results from its ability to simultaneously induce oxidative DNA damage and antagonize the mechanisms of DNA repair relying on the activity of YB-1 36 kDa form. In light of our current knowledge about the pro-apoptotic effects of UT-ex in squamous cancer cells, we believe that this plant may have a high potential value as an effective agent for treatment of cancerous skin lesions. (18)
This review examined the pharmacological studies and mechanisms of rhynchophylline, with an emphasis on cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases linked to the ethnopharmacological uses of Uncaria species.
Rhynchophylline was the main constituent of several components identified from Uncaria species. Rhynchophylline mainly acts on cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases, including hypertension, bradycardia, arrhythmia, sedation, vascular dementia, cerebral ischemia, etc. Rhynchophylline also has effects on anticoagulation, inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. The active mechanisms are related to modulation of calcium and potassium ion channels, protection of neural and neuroglial cells, and regulation of central neurotransmitter transport and metabolism.
Rhynchophylline treatment of cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases has a strong linkage with traditional concepts and uses of Uncaria species in ethnopharmacological medicine, such as treatment for lightheadedness, convulsions, numbness, and hypertension. (19)
This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic, mutagenic, and antimutagenic potentials of this medicinal plant. The biological activities of U. tomentosa were determined on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats that were treated in vivo. For the cytotoxic and mutagenic analyses, aqueous plant extract solutions were administered by gavage (1, 2, or 3 mg/mL) for 24 h (an acute treatment) or 7 days (a subchronic treatment). For the antimutagenic analyses, aqueous plant extract solutions (1 mg/mL) were administered by gavage before (pretreatment), simultaneous to (simultaneous treatment), or after (post-treatment), the administration of cyclophosphamide (1.5 mg/mL). U. tomentosa did not show any cytotoxic or mutagenic effects in any of the cytological or chromosomal analyses. Besides, the antimutagenic tests showed that the plant extracts displayed antimutagenic activities, which significantly reduced the percentages of the chromosomal aberrations that were induced by cyclophosphamide at 53.91, 58.60, and 57.03%, respectively, for the simultaneous treatment, pretreatment, and post-treatment. The results suggested a safe use of this herbal medicine. (20)
1. Gaber El-Saber Batiha, Amany Magdy Beshbishy, Lamiaa Wasef, Yaser H. A. Elewa, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Ayman E. Taha, Adham Abdullah Al-Sagheer, Hari Prasad Devkota and Vincenzo Tufarelli. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC.: A Review on Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities. Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(8), 2668.
2. Keplinger K, Laus G, Wurm M, et al. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. - ethnomedicinal use and new pharmacological, toxicological and botanical results. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 64:23-34.
3. Steinberg, Phillip N., C.N.C., Cat's Claw Update (Uncaria Tomentosa) That Wondrous Herb from the Peruvian Rain Forest, Townsend Letter for Doctors, August/September 1995.
4. Ch. Franz, R. Bauer, R. Carle, D. Tedesco, A. Tubaro, Trieste, K. Zitterl-Eglseer. Study on the assessment of plants herbs, plant/herb extracts and their naturally or synthetically produced components as “additives” for use in animal production. EFSA, Volume 4, Issue 4, August 2007.
5. Pilarski R, Zielinski H, Ciesiolka D, Gulewicz K. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Mar 8;104(1-2):18-23.
6. Jaixi Shen, Joseph Shalom, Ian Edwin Cock. The Antiproliferative Properties of Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC. extracts against Caco2 and HeLa Cancer Cell Lines. Pharmacogn. Commn. 2018; 8(1)
7. Sheng Y, Bryngelsson C, Pero R. Enhanced DNA repair, immune function and reduced toxicity of C-MED-100, a novel aqueous extract from Uncaria tomentosa. J Ethnopharmacol 2000; 69:115-126.
8. Piscoya J, Rodriguez Z, Bustamante SA, Okuhama NN, Miller MJ, Sandoval M. Efficacy and safety of freeze-dried cat's claw in osteoarthritis of the knee: mechanisms of action of the species Uncaria guianensis. Inflamm Res. 2001 Sep;50(9):442-8.
9. Sandoval-Chacón M, Thompson JH, Zhang XJ, Liu X, Mannick EE, Sadowska-Krowicka H, Charbonnet RM, Clark DA, Miller MJ. Antiinflammatory actions of cat's claw: the role of NF-kappaB. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Dec;12(12):1279-89.
10. García Prado E, García Gimenez MD, De la Puerta Vázquez R, Espartero Sánchez JL, Sáenz Rodríguez MT. Antiproliferative effects of mitraphylline, a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid of Uncaria tomentosa on human glioma and neuroblastoma cell lines. Phytomedicine. 2007 Apr;14(4):280-4. Epub 2007 Feb 12.
11. Riva L, Coradini D, Di Fronzo G, De Feo V, De Tommasi N, De Simone F, Pizza C. The antiproliferative effects of Uncaria tomentosa extracts and fractions on the growth of breast cancer cell line. Anticancer Res. 2001 Jul-Aug;21(4A):2457-61.
12. Sheng Y, Li L, Holmgren K, Pero RW. DNA repair enhancement of aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa in a human volunteer study. Phytomedicine. 2001 Jul;8(4):275-82.
13. Renzo Alberto Ccahuana-Vasquez; Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos Santos; Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens. Braz. oral res. vol.21 no.1 Sгo Paulo Jan./Mar. 2007.
14. Layanne C C Araujo, Karla B Feitosa, Gilson M Murata, Isadora C Furigo, Simone A Teixeira, Camila F Lucena, Luciene M Ribeiro, Marcelo N Muscará, Soraia K P Costa, José Donato Jr, Silvana Bordin, Rui Curi, Carla R O Carvalho. Uncaria Tomentosa Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Inflammation in Experimental NAFLD. Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 20;8(1):11013.
15. Alan D Snow, Gerardo M Castillo, Beth P Nguyen , Paula Y Choi , Joel A Cummings , Judy Cam , Qubai Hu, Thomas Lake , Weihong Pan , Abba J Kastin, Daniel A Kirschner, Steven G Wood, Edward Rockenstein, Eliezer Masliah, Stephen Lorimer, Rudolph E Tanzi, Lesley Larsen. The Amazon Rain Forest Plant Uncaria Tomentosa (Cat's Claw) and Its Specific Proanthocyanidin Constituents Are Potent Inhibitors and Reducers of Both Brain Plaques and Tangles. Sci Rep. 2019 Feb 6;9(1):561.
16. Maria do Carmo Santos Araújo, Iria Luiza Farias, Jessie Gutierres, Sergio L Dalmora, Nélia Flores, Julia Farias, Ivana de Cruz, Juarez Chiesa, Vera Maria Morsch, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger. Uncaria tomentosa-Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: Clinical Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012:676984.
17. S Lamm, Y Sheng, R W Pero. Persistent response to pneumococcal vaccine in individuals supplemented with a novel water soluble extract of Uncaria tomentosa, C-Med-100. Phytomedicine. 2001 Jul;8(4):267-74.
18. Francesca Ciania, Simona Tafuria, Annaelena Troianob, Alessio Cimminoc, Bianca Saveria Fiorettob, Andrea Maria Guarinob, Alessandra Polliceb, Maria Vivob, Antonio Evidentec, Domenico Carotenutod, Viola Calabròb. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Uncaria tomentosa aqueous extract in squamous carcinoma cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 211 (2018) 285–294.
19. Jiyin Zhou, Shiwen Zhou. Antihypertensive and neuroprotective activities of rhynchophylline: The role of rhynchophylline in neurotransmission and ion channel activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Volume 132, Issue 1, 28 October 2010, Pages 15-27.
20. I V Almeida, L C Soares, F T Lucio, L B Cantagalli, A F Reusing, V E P Vicentini. Chemotherapeutical effects of the herbal medicine Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. Genet Mol Res. 2017 Sep 27;16(3).