Fish Oil GP (90)

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Fish Oil GP contains the guaranteed amount of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids), and vitamin E as an antioxidant to prevent the active ingredients from damage, caused by free radicals.
The product has been manufactured using  pure raw materials and the technology that ensures their beneficial properties intact, in strict compliance with GMP and TÜV regulations.

Evidence is mounting that fish oil can play an important role in the maintenance of your good health and well-being.
Researches in the mid seventies suggested that marine oils rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) could explain the low incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Greenland Eskimos.

The importance of polyunsaturated fatty acids - EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) now is well recognized. There is good evidence that fish consumption can have a significant impact on several diseases.

Unfortunately only few of us eat enough fish, but for the vast majority Santegra® prepared wonderful natural product Fish Oil GP.

To match the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in this supplement, you would have to eat well over 200 g of selected fish daily.
Just three Fish Oil GP softgels daily deliver that amount to assist vital organs, cardiovascular function and other important body systems.

Omega-3 fatty acids support the cardiovascular system: prevent plaque formation on the blood vessel walls, improve blood vessel elasticity; lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels; lower the risk of heart attack and stroke.

EPA and DHA improve blood circulation to the brain and extremities; are essential for normal brain function.

Omega-3 fatty acids help to strengthen the immune system.

Adequate intake of Omega-3 fatty acids is beneficial for the skin, improves its softness and elasticity, and improves the condition of the hair.

As a dietary supplement take 3 softgels daily, preferably with food.


Individual intolerance, acute cholecystitis.

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Nowadays, when the obesity became the most widespread health problem, we are trying to avoid fat from our daily diet. But we are forgetting the very important point: there are good fats and there are bad fats. Artificially produced trans-fatty acids are bad in any amount and saturated fats from animal products should be kept at bay.

The best fats or oils rather, since they are liquid at room temperature, are those that contain the essential fatty acids so named because without them we cannot survive. Essential fatty acids are polyunsaturated and grouped into two families, the omega-6 EFAs and the omega-3 EFAs. Seemingly minor differences in their molecular structure make the two EFA families act very differently in the body. While the metabolic products of omega-6 acids promote inflammation, blood clotting, and tumor growth, the omega-3 acids act entirely opposite. Although we do need both omega-3s and omega-6s it is becoming increasingly clear that an excess of omega-6 fatty acids can have unhealthy consequences. Many scientists believe that a major reason for the high incidence of heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, premature aging, and some forms of cancer is the profound imbalance between our intake of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

Our ancestors evolved on a diet with a ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 of about 1:1. Huge changes in our dietary habits over the last few centuries has changed this ratio to something closer to 20:1 and this means trouble for our health. (1, 2, 3)

The main sources of omega-6 fats are vegetable oils such as corn oil and soy oil that contain a high proportion of linoleic acid. Omega-3 fats are found in flaxseed oil, walnut oil, marine plankton and fatty fish.
The main component of flaxseed and walnut oils is alpha-linolenic acid while the predominant fatty acids found in fatty fish are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are extremely beneficial to the human body.  (1,2)

It is calculated that 85% of Western population experiences the deficit of omega-3 fatty acid in their diet, and consumes too much omega-6 fats. According to the scientists the right ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 should be 3:2. (10)

Recommended by specialists the daily dose of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid is from 600 to 1,000 mg. One capsule of Fish Oil GP by Santegra® contains 1,000 mg of fish oil – 180 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid, the suggested by manufacturer daily dose is 3 capsules.

The use of omega-3 fatty acids can change the electrophysiological properties of myocardium.

American scientists headed by William Harris at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine analyzed electrocardiographic data obtained in two researches that included 18 patients 4.4 +/- 2.6 years after heart transplantation. All participants received 1 - 3.4 g of omega-3 fatty acids per day for 4 to 6 months. It was reported that omega-3 fatty acids helped slow down the heart beat rate from 88 down to 83 beats per minute. QRS duration increased from 107 to 117. QT duration remained unchanged. These findings suggest that omega-3 fatty acids may modify electrophysiological properties of the myocardium itself. (11)

“A diet with omega-3-rich oily fish could stop the spread of prostate cancer” – this is the statement made by scientist from Paterson Institute, Manchester, Great Britain.
"Omega 6 fats, found in vegetable oils, nuts and seeds, increased the spread of tumour cells into bone marrow. This invasion was blocked by omega 3 fats - the ones found in oily fish. It is possible to have a healthy balance of these two types of fat - we only need about half as much omega 3 as omega 6 - that will still stop cancer cells from spreading," said lead author Mick Brown from the Paterson Institute.
Noel Clarke, principal investigator of the research group, said: "We think tumors may exploit the omega 6 fats as a high energy source - giving them the energy they need to maintain a high growth rate - and to create important signaling molecules.
Omega 3 fats are known to interfere with the various functions of omega 6 fats, confirmed by our findings. This effectively removes the cancer's 'free lunch', a fact that may have clinical importance.
Some tumors develop slowly in the prostate without producing symptoms and sometimes when symptoms do develop, it is because the cancer has already spread. Eating a diet with the right balance of omega 3 and omega 6 fats may well help to keep prostate cancer within the prostate gland."  (12)

Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation can improve endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients with chronic heart failure.
The study investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acids administration on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in patients ≥65 years old who received treatment for chronic heart failure (CHF). Twenty patients (mean age 73 years; 15 men) with grade II and III CHF who were on maximal medical management were recruited. Patients were randomized in a double-blind, crossover fashion to 6 weeks of omega-3 fatty acid (1.8 g ecosapentaenoic acid and 1.2 g docosahexaenoic acid) or olive oil. Forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to incremental doses of intra-arterial sodium nitroprusside, acetycholine (ACH), angiotensin-II, and Ng-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester were assessed by venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography. The endothelium-dependent increase in FBF was greater in response in ACH infusion after omega-3 fatty acid administration (7.9) compared with baseline (7.95) and olive oil administration (7.27). Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was accompanied by an increase in FBF response to ACH, which represents enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in CHF. (13)

Dr. T. Huang and his colleagues from Tufts University, Boston, MA analyzed the data collected by Cardiovascular Health Cognition Study compared associations of lean fish vs fatty fish (tuna or other fish) intake with dementia, Alzheimer disease, and vascular dementia in 2233 patients.
Although consumption of lean fried fish had no protective effect, consumption of fatty fish more than twice per week was associated with a reduction in risk of dementia by 28% (95% CI: 0.51 to 1.02), and AD by 41% (95% CI: 0.36 to 0.95) in comparison to those who ate fish less than once per month. Stratification by APOE  4 showed this effect to be selective to those without the  4 allele. (14)

Many small studies have concluded that fish oil supplementation leads to a marked improvement in rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. However, precisely because these studies have been small, their publication has not had a major impact on the medical treatment of arthritis. A team of researchers from the Harvard Medical School has combined and analyzed the results of these smaller studies. Their meta-analysis covered 10 double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies aimed at determining the effect of fish oil supplementation on 8 measures of arthritis severity including the number of tender joints, number of swollen joints, extent of morning stiffness, grip strength, erythrocyte sedimentation rates, and overall global assessment of disease severity. The studies involved a total of 368 participants who took fish oil supplements for at least three months. The meta-analysis revealed a highly significant decrease in the number of tender joints and a significant shortening in the duration of morning stiffness among patients supplementing with fish oils. (15)

Belgian researchers have released the results of a major study aimed at determining the long-term effects of fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Sixty patients completed the year-long, double-blind, randomized study. The participants were divided into 3 groups with 1 group receiving a daily supplement of 6 capsules containing 1 gram of olive oil each (placebo); another group receiving 3 olive oil capsules plus 3 fish oil capsules (containing 1 gram of fish oil each); and the third group receiving 6 fish oil capsules daily (corresponding to 2.6 grams/day of omega-3 fatty acid). All patients continued on their regular arthritis medications.
Three months into the study it became clear that the patients on fish oil alone had improved considerably when compared to the other 2 groups and this improvement became even more pronounced after 12 months of supplementation. Fifty-three per cent of the patients in the fish oil group showed significant overall improvement as compared to 10% in the placebo group and 33% in the fish oil plus olive oil group. Forty-seven per cent of the patients in the fish oil group were also able to reduce their intake of NSAIDs and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs as compared to 15% in the placebo group and 29% in the olive oil plus fish oil group. The researchers conclude that long-term supplementation with fish oils benefits rheumatoid arthritis patients significantly and may lessen their need for NSAIDs and other RA medications. (16)

Medical doctors at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital have released the results of a clinical trial designed to evaluate the effects of oral supplementation with fish oils in the treatment of psoriasis. The 28 patients involved in the trial had all been diagnosed with chronic psoriasis. They were randomized into two groups with one group receiving 10 fish oil capsules (containing 1.8 grams of EPA) and the other group receiving 10 olive oil capsules every day for the duration of the 12-week trial. After 8 weeks of treatment there was a significant reduction in itching, erythema and scaling in the fish oil group and a trend towards a decrease in the surface area of skin affected by the disease. No significant changes occurred in the placebo group. The researchers conclude that fish oil supplementation is useful in the treatment of psoriasis particularly when itching is a major problem. (17)

According to the results of the age-related eye disease study conducted by John Paul SanGiovanni, 4513 patients in the age group 60-80 years old used omega-3 fatty acid regularly (more than 2 servings of omega-3-rich oily fish) demonstrated the decreased risk of developing age-related macular degeneration.

Analyzing Women’s Health Study on 32470 women, 45-84 years old showed the tendency to minimize the risk of dry eye syndrome with supplemental omega-3 fatty acids intake (0,83; р = 0,04).
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and JAMA review both indicated decreases in total mortality and cardiovascular incidents (i.e. myocardial infarctions) associated with the regular consumption of fish and fish oil supplements. Of particular importance is that no or very few complications were documented. (18, 19)

41 students took either docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil capsules containing 1.5-1.8 grams DHA/day (17 females and 5 males) or control oil capsules containing 97% soybean oil plus 3% fish oil (12 females and 7 males) for 3 mo in a double-blind fashion. They took a psychological test (P-F Study) and Stroop and dementia-detecting tests at the start and end of the study. The present study started at the end of summer vacation and ended in the middle of mental stress such as final exams. In the control group extraggression (aggression against others) in P-F Study was significantly increased at the end of the study as compared with that measured at the start (delta = +8.9%, P = 0.0022), whereas it was not significantly changed in the DHA group (delta = -1.0%). The 95% CI of differences between the DHA and control groups were -16.8 to -3.0%. DHA supplementation did not affect the Stroop and dementia-detecting tests. Thus, DHA intake prevented extraggression from increasing at times of mental stress. This finding might help understand how fish oils prevent disease like coronary heart disease. (20)

The study was conducted to test the hypothesis that, in heart failure patients, dietary supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) enhances arterial baroreceptor control of the cardiovascular system, administration of PUFA reduces the risk of life-threatening arrhythmias in patients surviving myocardial infarction. Patients with post-myocardial infarction left ventricular dysfunction underwent beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and R-R interval (electrocardiogram) recording; baroreceptor reflexes were assessed from the bradycardic and depressor responses to graded neck suction (NS) as well as by computation of the alpha "spontaneous" baroreflex sensitivity index. Assessments were repeated after prolonged treatment with PUFA (2 g/die) - 15 patients, or placebo – 10 patients. As the result: baseline BP and R-R interval were unaffected by PUFA. Both reflex depressor and bradycardic responses to NS increased after PUFA (respectively from -0.09 to -0.16 mm Hg x mm Hg(-1), p < 0.01, and from 1.25 to 1.76 ms x mm Hg(-1), p < 0.04) but not after placebo. The spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity increased in the PUFA (from 8.99 to 12.2 ms x mm Hg(-1), p < 0.02) but not in the placebo group. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (but not placebo) treatment also significantly increased R-R interval total variance and low-frequency and high-frequency spectral powers.                   CONCLUSIONS: Dietary PUFA supplementation markedly potentiates baroreflex function and enhances heart rate variability in patients with stable congestive heart failure. (21)

Another study conducted by a group of Medical Doctors at Columbia University was trying to find out the association between low levels of docosahexaenoic acid, a polyunsaturated fatty acid, elevated ratios of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids, and major depression and, possibly, suicidal behavior. Plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in phospholipids were measured in 33 medication-free depressed patients monitored for suicide attempt over a 2-year period. Survival analysis examined the association of plasma polyunsaturated fatty acid status and pathological outcome. As a result three of the 33 subjects were lost to follow-up, 23 were nonattempters, and seven made at least one suicide attempt. Two attempts were fatal. Subjects had a mean age of 40.4 years, with 16.6 years of illness duration and 3.7 prior episodes of depression. A lower docosahexaenoic acid percentage of total plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher omega-6/omega-3 ratio predicted suicide attempt. CONCLUSIONS: A low docosahexaenoic acid percentage and low omega-3 proportions of lipid profile predicted risk of suicidal behavior among depressed patients over the 2-year period. This finding has implications for the neurobiology of suicide and reduction of suicide risk. (22)

1. Simopoulos, Artemis. Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 54, 1991, pp. 438-63

2. Pepping, Joseph. Omega-3 essential fatty acids. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, Vol. 56, April 15, 1999, pp. 719-24

3. Uauy-Dagach, Ricardo and Valenzuela, Alfonso. Marine oils: the health benefits of n-3 fatty acids. Nutrition Reviews, Vol. 54, November 1996, pp. S102-S108

4. Connor, William E. Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71 (suppl), January 2000, pp. 171S-75S

5. US Food and Drug Administration (September 8, 2004). FDA Announces Qualified Health Claims for Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

6. "The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults: a placebo-controlled double-blind study," T. Hamazaki, S. Sawazaki, M. Itomura, E. Asoka, Y. Nagao, N. Nishimura, K. Yazawa, T. Kuwamori, and M. Kobayashi, Journal of Clinical Investiga ation, Vol. 97, 1996, pp. 1129-1133.

7. Kremer, Joel M., et al. Fish-oil fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis: A double-blinded, controlled, crossover study. Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 106, April 1987, pp. 497-503

8. Kremer, Joel M. n-3 fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71 (suppl), January 2000, pp. 349S-51S

9. J. Stevens, S. S. Zentall, M. L. Abate, T. Kuczek, and J. R. Burgess. "Omega-3 fatty acids in boys with behavior, learning, and health problems,"conference abstract,1995.

10.    Simopoulos AP, Leaf A, Salem Jr N. Statement on the essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 2000;63:119-121.

11.    J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;98:1393-5.

12.    British Journal of Cancer (doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603030),

13.    D. Morgan, L. Dixon, C. Hanratty, N. El-Sherbeeny, P. Hamilton, L. McGrath, W. Leahey, G. Johnston, G. McVeigh. Effects of Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure.  Am J Cardiol 2006;97:547-51.

14.    T. L. Huang, PhD, P. P. Zandi, PhD, K. L. Tucker, PhD, A. L. Fitzpatrick, PhD, L. H. Kuller, MD, Dr PH, L. P. Fried, MD, MPH, G. L. Burke, MD, MS and M. C. Carlson, PhD Benefits of fatty fish on dementia risk are stronger for those without APOE epsilon4. NEUROLOGY 2005;65:1409-1414

15.    Fortin, Paul R., et al. Validation of a meta-analysis: the effects of fish oil in rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, Vol. 48, 1995, pp. 1379-90

16.    Geusens, Piet, et al. Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism, Vol. 37, June 1994, pp. 824-29

17.    Bittiner, S.B., et al. A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil in psoriasis. The Lancet, February 20, 1988, pp. 378-80

18.    Wang C, Harris WS, Chung M, et al. n-3 fatty acids from fish or fish-oil supplmenets but not a-linoleic acid, benefit cardiovascular outcomes in primary and secondary prevention studies: a systematic review. Am J. Clin Nutr 2006;84:5-17

19. Mozaffarian D, & Rimm EB. Fish Intake, Contaminants, and Human Health: Evaluating the Risks and the Benefits. JAMA, October 18, 2006—Vol 296, No.15

20.    T. Hamazaki, S. Sawazaki, M. Itomura, E. Asoka, Y. Nagao, N. Nishimura, K. Yazawa, T. Kuwamori, and M. Kobayashi "The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults: a placebo-controlled double-blind study,", Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 97, 1996, pp. 1129-1133.

21.    J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;48:1600-6.

22.    M. Elizabeth Sublette, M.D., Ph.D., Joseph R. Hibbeln, M.D., Hanga Galfalvy, Ph.D., Maria A. Oquendo, M.D. and J. John Mann, Ph.D. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Essential Fatty Acid Status as a Predictor of Future Suicide Risk. Am J Psychiatry 2006; 163: 52