Pau d'Arco GP (30)
Pau d’Arco GP is a natural “antibiotic”, immune system stimulant, contains Pau d’Arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa) bark extract (4:1) with 3% of active ingredients - naphtoquinones that guarantees its effectiveness and consistency.
The product has been manufactured using high quality pure raw materials and the technology that ensures all their beneficial properties intact, in strict compliance with GMP and TÜV regulations.
Pau d’Arco is native to tropical regions of Central and South America. It has been used for many centuries by the local tribes, who called Pau d’Arco "The Divine Tree."
The ancient Incas and Aztecs were probably the first to discover the herb’s healing powers.
Pau d’Arco was applied externally and internally for the treatment of fevers, infections, colds, flu, cancer, respiratory problems, skin ulcerations and boils, dysentery, gastro-intestinal problems of all kinds, debilitating conditions such as arthritis and prostatitis, and circulation problems. It was used to relieve pain, kill germs, and even as an antidote to poisons. (1)
One of the most important properties of Pau d’Arco is its ability to mobilize the body’s host defenses.
The chemical constituents and active ingredients of Tabebuia impetiginosa have been well documented. The main active ingredients in this plant are the quinones, the most important ones being naphthoquinones, of which lapachol have shown the most documented biological activity.
Pau d’Arco has antimicrobial effect. (5, 23, 24)
Pau d’Arco is a potent antioxidant. In vitro trials show definite inhibition of free radicals by Pau d’Arco constituents. (6, 14, 15)
Some constituents or groups of constituents of Pau d’Arco have been found to suppress tumor formation and reduce tumor viability, both in experimental animal trials and in clinical settings involving human patients. (7, 8, 9, 16)
Naphthoquinones show potent antifungal properties in laboratory tests. (2, 9)
The anti-inflammatory action of Pau d’Arco extract were also demonstrated in clinical studies. (14, 17, 19, 20)
Tabebuia impetiginosa active constituents have demonstrated “in vitro” antiviral properties. (9, 18)
Its antiparasitic actions against various parasites have been confirmed as well. (10, 11, 12)
Tabebuia impetiginosa bark extract has wound healing properties. (3)
There is some evidence that Pau d’Arco can be useful as a pain reliever. (20)
Tabebuia impetiginosa has mild soothing effect; relieves the irritation of inflamed mucous membranes. (21)
Tabebuia impetiginosa due to its unique properties is very popular all over the world now. Unfortunately, its popularity has been controversial due to varying results obtained with its use. For the most part, these seem to have been caused by a lack of quality control. Some products exported from South America as “pau d’arco,” have few to none of the active constituents.
Santegra® thoroughly controls the quality of raw materials and manufactured products. That is why Pau d’Arco GP contains standardized Pau d’Arco bark extract (4:1) with 3% naphtoquinones, which guarantees its effectiveness.
Pau d’Arco GP also contains rutin – widely used antioxidant.
As a dietary supplement, take 1-2 capsules daily with a glass of water.
Nowdays infectious diseases are a worldwide public health problem. There is growing research in the field of new plant-based drugs for treating such diseases. The ethnobotanical and experimental (in vitro) evidence supports the use of Tabebuia species for treating infectious diseases. (13)
As early as 1873, biomedical uses of Red Lapacho (Pau D’Arco) were reported.
The chemical composition of Tabebuia impetiginosa has been extensively studied and a variety of constituents have been isolated, such as furanonaphthoquinones, naphthoquinones, quinones, benzoic acids, cyclopentene dialdehydes, iridoids, and phenolic glycosides.
Its biological properties have been related mainly with the presence of naphthoquinones, which constitute the most prevalent active chemical group in the plant. Among the naphthoquinones, lapachol and β-lapachone are the two compounds that attracted the highest interest, being obtained from the bark. Lapachol was first isolated in 1882 by the Italian phytochemist Emanuele Paterno from Tabebuia impetiginosa.
Oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids in Tabebuia impetiginosa. Oleic acid combines a hypocholesterolemic effect and a high oxidative stability, while linoleic acid has been showing protective effects against cancer, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis in animal studies and in different human cell lines.
There were α- and γ- tocopherol isoforms detected in Tabebuia impetiginosa. α-Tocopherol was, by far, the most abundant vitamer. Considering its antioxidant potential and various functions at the molecular level, α-tocopherol can reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases (eliminating reactive oxygen species, inhibiting lipid peroxidation, and attenuating inflammatory reactions) and neurodegenerative disorders.
Tabebuia Impetigosa was revealed to be a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds, with potential to be used in alternative medicine. (22)
The in vivo antifungal activity of the naphthoquinone beta-lapachone against disseminated infection by Cryptococcus neoformans was investigated. Swiss mice were immunosuppressed daily with dexamethasone (0.5 mg per mouse) intraperitoneally for 3 days, the procedure was repeated 4 days later, and the animals were then challenged intravenously with C. neoformans (106 CFU/mL) 1 week later. Seven days after infection, the mice were divided into groups and treated daily with beta-lapachone (10 mg/kg, iv) for 7 (N = 6) and 14 days (N = 10). Amphotericin B (0.5 mg/kg) was used as comparator drug and an additional group received PBS. Treatment with beta-lapachone cleared the yeast from the spleen and liver, and the fungal burden decreased approximately 104 times in the lungs and brain 14 days after infection when compared to the PBS group (P < 0.05). This result was similar to that of the amphotericin B-treated group. Protection was suggestively due to in vivo antifungal activity of this drug and apparently not influenced by activation of the immune response, due to similar leukocyte cell counts among all groups. This study highlights the prospective use of beta-lapachone for treatment of disseminated cryptococcosis. (2)
Impaired wound healing is a serious problem for diabetic patients. Wound healing is a complex process that requires the cooperation of many cell types, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages. beta-Lapachone, a natural compound extracted from the bark of the lapacho tree, is well known for its antitumor, antiinflammatory, and antineoplastic effects at different concentrations and conditions, but its effects on wound healing have not been studied. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of beta-lapachone on wound healing and its underlying mechanism. In the present study, we demonstrated that a low dose of beta-lapachone enhanced the proliferation in several cells, facilitated the migration of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and human endothelial EAhy926 cells through different MAPK signaling pathways, and accelerated scrape-wound healing in vitro. Application of ointment with or without beta-lapachone to a punched wound in normal and diabetic (db/db) mice showed that the healing process was faster in beta-lapachone-treated animals than in those treated with vehicle only. In addition, beta-lapachone induced macrophages to release VEGF and EGF, which are beneficial for growth of many cells. Our results showed that beta-lapachone can increase cell proliferation, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and migration of fibroblasts and endothelial cells and thus accelerate wound healing. Therefore, we suggest that beta-lapachone may have potential for therapeutic use for wound healing. (3)
The antiplatelet and antiproliferative activities of extract of Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark (taheebo) were investigated using washed rabbit platelets and cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. n-Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed marked and selective inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen and arachidonic acid (AA) in a dose-dependent manner. These fractions, especially the chloroform fraction, also significantly suppressed AA liberation induced by collagen in [(3)H]AA-labeled rabbit platelets. The fractions, especially the chloroform fraction, potently inhibited cell proliferation and DNA synthesis induced by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, and inhibited the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) stimulated by PDGF-BB, in the same concentration range that inhibits VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. (4)
The growth-inhibiting activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC dried inner bark-derived constituents against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 was examined using paper disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) bioassays. The activity of the isolated compounds was compared to that of the commercially available anti-Helicobacter pylori agents, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. The biologically active components of Tabebuia impetiginosa dried inner bark (taheebo) were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone, anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (lapachol). With the paper disc diffusion assay 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited strong activity against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 at 0.01 mg/disc. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, lapachol and metronidazole were less effective, exhibiting moderate anti-Helicobacter pylori activity at 0.1 mg/disc. Amoxicillin and tetracycline were the most potent compounds tested, displaying very strong activity at 0.005 mg/disc. 2-(Hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited moderate activity at this dose. Tetracycline still had strong activity at 0.001 mg/disc while amoxicillin had little activity at this dose. In the MIC bioassay, 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone (2 microg/mL), anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (8 microg/mL), and lapachol (4 microg/mL) were more active than metronidazole (32 microg/mL) but less effective than amoxicillin (0.063 microg/mL) and tetracycline (0.5 microg/mL). The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (structurally related to lapachol), 1,4-naphthoquinone, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin), 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone), 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin), 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone), and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (dichlone) was also evaluated using the paper disc assay. Menadione and plumbagin were the most potent compounds tested with the later still exhibiting very strong activity at 0.001 mg/disc. Menadione, juglone and tetracycline had strong activity at this low dose while the latter two compounds and amoxicillin had very strong activity at 0.005 mg/disc. Lawsone was unusual in that it had very strong activity at 0.1 and 0.05 mg/disc but weak activity at doses of 0.01 mg/disc and lower. Naphthazalin, lapachol and dichlone had similar activities while metronidazole had the lowest activity of all compounds tested. These results may be an indication of at least one of the pharmacological actions of taheebo. The Tabebuia impetiginosa dried inner bark-derived materials, particularly 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone, merit further study as potential Helicobacter pylori eradicating agents or lead compounds. (5)
Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, California 94710, USA. Volatiles were isolated from the dried inner bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa using steam distillation under reduced pressure followed by continuous liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major volatile constituents of T. impetiginosa were 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (52.84 microg/g), 4-methoxyphenol (38.91 microg/g), 5-allyl-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene (elemicin; 34.15 microg/g), 1-methoxy-4-(1E)-1-propenylbenzene (trans-anethole; 33.75 microg/g), and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (30.29 microg/g). The antioxidant activity of the volatiles was evaluated using two different assays. The extract exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides (from methyl linoleate) at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. The extract also inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for 40 days at a level of 5 microg/mL. The antioxidative activity of T. impetiginosa volatiles was comparable with that of the well-known antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol, and butylated hydroxytoluene. (6)
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, P.O. Box 3157, 60430-270 Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.
Drugs containing a quinone moiety, such as anthracyclines, mitoxantrones and lapachol, show excellent anticancer activity. In this study, 2-butanoylamine-1,4-naphthoquinone (1) and 2-propanoylamine-1,4-naphthoquinone (2) derivatives from 2-amine-1 ,4-naphthoquinone were synthesized, and their antitumor activity in mice bearing Sarcoma 180 tumor were examined. In addition, hematology and biochemistry analyses, as well as, histopathological and morphological analyses were performed in order to evaluate the toxicological aspects of the naphthoquinones treatment. Both naphthoquinones showed potente antitumor activity. The inhibition rates were 33.48 and 42.35% for (1) and 37.65 and 55.24% for (2) at the dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg/day, respectively. In the histopathological analysis, the naphthoquinones showed only weak toxicity. Neither enzimatic activity of transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase-AST nor alanine aminotransferase-ALT), urea level nor hematological paramenter were significantly modified after naphthoquinones treatment. These data reinforce the anticancer potential of naphthoquinones derivatives. (7)
Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratório de Controle da Expressão Gênica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Bloco C, Cidade Universitária, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Metastasis is the major process responsible for the death in cancer patients. In the search for more effective antineoplasic drugs, many substances are under investigation, among them lapachol. This study aims to examine the molecular and morphological alterations caused by lapachol treatment, as well as its effects on the intrinsic tissue invasive property of this cell line. HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations of lapachol, and the resulting alterations on cellular protein profile, morphology and invasiveness property were studied. At 400 microg/ml, cellular viability remains unchanged, but lapachol induces alterations in the protein profile and inhibits the invasiveness of HeLa cells in CAM model. With these results, we can conclude that lapachol has a great potential of application in fighting metastasis. (8)
Department of Chemistry, Lucknow University, Lucknow 226007, India. email@example.com
The synthesis and evaluation of some 2-substituted-1,4-naphthoquinones 2, S-(1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl)-mercaptoalkanoic acid amides 4, related benzoquinone and naphthoquinone derivatives 6-9 and 2,3-disubstituted 1,4-naphthoquinones 10-11 were carried out. The antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer activities were determined by using the standard assay. The results show that compounds 2b and 10a showed in vitro antiviral activity against Influenza-A Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus and possess pronounced antifungal profile whereas 4a showed anticancer activities against Lymphoid Leukaemia P 388. (9)
β-Lapachone is a semisynthetic analogue to the lapachol compound obtained from the bark of trees of the families Bigoniaceae and Verbenaceae, which are commonly found in many areas of Brazil. It has shown in vitro activity against Shcistosoma mansoni adult worms as well as in vivo properties in mice. In vitro, β-lapachone at 100 μM caused mortality of all adult schistosomes. (10)
The activity of the potassium salt of lapachol against the snail Biomphalaria glabrata and its egg masses was tested. The obtained IC50 values (2.70 ppm and 1.43 ppm, respectively) are indicative of a strong activity. Lapachol derivatives were also assayed against infective trypomastigote blood forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and the triacetoxy derivative of reduced lapachol showed relevant trypanocidal activity, killing 95.7% of the parasites at the concentration of 42 microg/mL. (11)
The biological activities of the naphthoquinones lapachol and its cyclization product beta-lapachone, extracted from trees of the genus Tabebuia, have been intensively studied. Given continuity to the studies about heterocyclic derivatives obtained from the reaction of these naphtoquinones with amino-containing reagents, 22 derivatives of beta-lapachone, nor-beta-lapachone and lapachol were synthesised and their activities against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi were evaluated. The compounds were grouped as oxazolic, imidazolic, phenoxazinic, indolic, pyranic and cyclopentenic derivatives. The variability of the new structures is based on the great electrophilicity of 1,2-quinoidal carbonyls towards reagents containing nitrogen or carbon as nucleophilic centres. In relation to the trypanocidal activity of the synthesised compounds, in view of their structural diversity, tendencies only could be verified. Among the cyclofunctionalised products the oxazolic and imidazolic derivatives showed +/- 1.5 to 34.8 times higher activity than crystal violet, the standard drug for the sterilization of stored blood. These results corroborate the tendency of trypanocidal activity in imidazolic skeletons, and indicate that this moiety could be used as a guide for architectural delineation of molecules with potential value for the chemotherapy of Chagas disease. (12)
Infectious diseases are a worldwide public health problem. There is growing research in the field of new plant-based drugs for treating such diseases. Our objective was to perform a systematic literature review to evaluate the anti-infectious activity (antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic) attributed to plants of the Tabebuia (Bignoniaceae) genus.
We found ethnobotanical and experimental (in vitro) evidence supporting the use of Tabebuia species for treating infectious diseases. In addition, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity have been isolated, and their structures have been elucidated, emphasizing among them naphthoquinones such as lapachol.
Natural products isolated from Tabebuia plants may be an alternative for developing new anti-infectious agents. (13)
β-Lapachone (β-LAP) is a natural naphthoquinone compound isolated from the lapacho tree (Tabebuia sp.). It has been used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, infection, and cancer. In the present study, we investigated whether β-LAP has anti-inflammatory effects under in vitro and in vivo neuroinflammatory conditions.
Methods: The effects of β-LAP on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells and rat primary microglia by ELISA, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot analysis. Microglial activation and the expression levels of proinflammatory molecules were measured in the LPS-injected mouse brain by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis. The detailed molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of β-LAP was analyzed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay, reporter gene assay, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis. Results: β-LAP inhibited the expression of iNOS, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs (MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9) at mRNA and protein levels in LPS-stimulated microglia. On the other hand, β-LAP upregulated the expressions of antiinflammatory molecules such as IL-10, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). The anti-inflammatory effect of β-LAP was confirmed in an LPS-induced systemic inflammation mouse model. Thus, β-LAP inhibited microglial activation and the expressions of iNOS, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs in the LPS-injected mouse brain.
The anti-oxidant effects of β-LAP appeared to be related with the increase of HO-1 and NQO1 via the Nrf2/anti-oxidant response element (ARE) pathway and/or the PKA pathway.
The strong anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant effects of β-LAP may provide preventive therapeutic potential for various neuroinflammatory disorders. (14)
The study identified six phenylpropanoid glycosides from the water extract of Taheebo. Phenylpropanoid glycosides displayed strong anti-oxidant activity and moderate inhibitory activity on CYP3A4 enzyme. It is reported that oxidative stress is implicated in a wide array of human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, inflammatory joint diseases, cardiovascular dysfunctions, as well as ageing, so the presence of strong anti-oxidant phenylpropanoid glycosides in Taheebo may be a good illustration supporting the many biological activities of Taheebo displays and its use in folk medicine to treat many diseases for thousands of years. (15)
Beta-lapachone, a quinone compound obtained from the bark of the lapacho tree (Tabebuia avellanedae, or Tabebuia impetiginosa), was reported to have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we investigated novel functions of beta-lapachone in terms of anti-metastasis and anti-invasion abilities using human hepatocarcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B. beta-lapachone dose-dependently inhibited cell viability and migration of both HepG2 and Hep3B cells, as determined by methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) assay and wound healing assay. RT-PCR and Western blot data revealed that beta-lapachone dramatically increased the levels of protein, as well as mRNA expression of early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1) and throbospondin-1 (TSP-1) at an early point in time, and then decreased in a time-dependent manner. In addition, down-regulation of Snail and up-regulation of E-cadherin expression were observed in beta-lapachone-treated HepG2 and Hep3B cells, and this the associated with decreased invasive ability as measured by matrigel invasion assay. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that beta-lapachone may be expected to inhibit the progression and metastasis of hepatoma cells, at least in part by inhibiting the invasive ability of the cells via up-regulation of the expression of the Egr-1, TSP-1, and E-cadherin. (16)
Inflammation plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Inflammatory diseases impose huge costs on the health systems. On the other hand, some side effects have been reported for the classic drugs used to treat these diseases. Plants phytochemicals have revealed important prospects in the handling and controlling of human diseases. β-lapachone, is a derivative of the naturally occurring element lapachol, from Tabebuia avellanedae (Tabebuia impetiginosa) and its anti-inflammatory effects have been reported in several reports. This review summarized the evidence from cell and animal studies supporting the anti-inflammatory role of β-lapachone and discussed its potential mechanisms. (17)
Sixteen derivatives synthesized from the naphthoquinone lapachol, were tested for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), as a test for potential cancer chemopreventive agents. They exhibited a variety of inhibitory activities from very high to moderate, which allow us to suggest structure-activity relationships. Ten of these derivatives are reported for the first time, their structures being thoroughly determined by spectroscopic methods. (18)
The isolation of two cyclopentene dialdehydes, 2-formyl-5-(4'-methoxybenzoyloxy)-3-methyl-2-cyclopentene-1-acetal dehyde, and 2-formyl-5-(3', 4'-dimethoxybenzoyloxy)-3-methyl-2-cyclopentene-1-acetaldehyde, from the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa is reported. The structures were established by analysis of spectroscopic data. These compounds showed anti-inflammatory activity. (19)
Taheebo, the purple inner bark of the Bignoniaceae tree Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb (Tabebuia impetiginosa), which is found in tropical rain forests in northeastern Brazil, has been used as a traditional medicine for various diseases for more than 1,500 years. In the current study, various animal models were used to demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of its ethanolic extract, thereby investigating its potential as a therapeutic treatment for diseases with pain and inflammation. In the hot plate and writhing tests for the in vivo analgesic effect test of Taheebo, a 200 mg/kg dose of the extract induced a significant anti-nociceptive effect and increased the pain threshold by approximately 30% compared with the control. In vascular permeability and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA), arachidonic acid- and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests for anti-inflammatory effects, treatment with 200 mg/kg Taheebo led to significant anti-inflammatory effects and inhibited inflammation by 30-50% compared with the control. At 100 mg/kg, the extract decreased the levels of pain and inflammation in all tested models, but the degree of inhibition was not statistically significant. The results suggest that the ethanolic extract of the inner bark of Tabebuia avellanedae (Tabebuia impetiginosa) has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic or supportive drug against diseases with accompanying pain and inflammation, including osteoarthritis. (20)
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders that are mediated by pathogenic Th1 and Th17 cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that taheebo water extract (TWE) derived from Tabebuia avellanedae Lorentz ex Griseb. (Tabebuia impetiginosa), as folk remedy, has been used to treat various inflammatory diseases. Although TWE has been previously shown to display anti-inflammatory activities, the in vivo effects of TWE on mucosal immune responses remain unclear. We examined the anti-inflammatory effects of TWE on innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages and on the differentiation of T helper cells. Lastly, adopting a method for dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, we investigated whether the oral administration of TWE can modulate mucosal inflammatory responses. We found that TWE could activate DCs to produce immunosuppressive IL10 and polarize macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN). Such alterations in DCs and macrophages resulted in a significant increase in anti-inflammatory Th2 and Foxp3+ Treg cells and a dramatic decrease in pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 cells in the MLN. Upon induction of colitis with DSS treatment, TWE significantly reduced the clinical symptoms, including body weight loss and colonic tissue inflammation, by up-regulating type II T helper immune responses.
Taken together, these data suggest that TWE is an excellent natural product with therapeutic effects to help improve inflammatory disorders such as colitis. (21)
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