Glucosamine Forte (60)

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Glucosamine Forte contains natural ingredients – glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, devil’s claw, and shark cartilage extract that work synergistically. Glucosamine is presented in the most concentrated (83% glucosamine) form of glucosamine hydrochloride.

The product has been manufactured using high quality pure raw materials and the technology that ensures all their beneficial properties intact, in strict compliance with GMP and TÜV regulations.


With age, the cartilage, which cushions the joints often deteriorates. In addition, the production of synovial fluid, which lubricates the joints, slows down. This can lead to the condition, called osteoarthritis, when bones rub together and cause distress with every twist or bend. 
If you were like the Tin Man in the Wizard of Oz, you could use your oilcan to lubricate your joints whenever you started to feel a little creaky. 

The Arthritis Foundation and the National Center for Disease Prevention offer the following suggestions for a lifetime of joint health:

Maintain your ideal body weight
Being overweight increases your risk of joint problems because of the increased and often unbalanced pressure on the joints. For instance, every extra pound you gain puts four times the stress on your knees. Research indicates that losing even a few pounds may cut your risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee by half.

Exercise regularly
Regular, moderate exercise can reduce joint pain and stiffness, build strong muscle around the joints, strengthen joints and ligaments, and increase flexibility and endurance. Swimming, water aerobics, walking (on flat surfaces) and tai chi all benefit your joints by offering a full range of movement. Strength training (lifting weights) also is beneficial, as it creates denser bones and builds stronger muscles, which then help stabilize and protect your joints.

Use good body mechanics
Joint health is affected by how you use your body. Your posture when sitting or standing and your position when you move determine how much strain is put on your joints.

Eat right
Nourish your joints by eating a high-fiber, low-fat diet. Be sure to include omega-3 fats (found in cold-water fish), which provide natural lubrication for your joints. Vitamin and mineral supplements are important, too, especially the antioxidant vitamins A, C and E, which help repair connective tissue and promote joint regeneration; and the minerals calcium, manganese, chromium and zinc.
Additionally, the nutritional supplements glucosamine and chondroitin have been shown to stimulate healthy joints.


Glucosamine Forte is a special formulation of several natural ingredients that have been found to contribute to joint health.

Glucosamine stimulates the body’s manufacture of collagen, the protein portion of the fibrous substance that holds joints together and provides a shock-absorbing cushion called articular cartilage – the white smooth surface, which covers the ends of body joints – such as those in the wrist, fingers, toes, ankles, knees, hips and between the discs of the spine. Glucosamineis essential for the connective tissue formation. It stimulates the production of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, two essential building blocks of cartilage.

It is recommended to take glucosamine for a long period of time – at least 8 weeks due to its gradual effect.

Chondroitin sulfate is synergistic with glucosamine. Chondroitin sulfate is a major constituent of cartilage, providing structure, holding water and nutrients, and allowing other molecules to move through cartilage – an important property, as there is no blood supply to cartilage. Chondroitin sulfate appears to block the enzymes that can destroy crucial cartilage tissue. Preliminary findings indicate that chondroitin may increase joint mobility and slow cartilage loss. In degenerative joint disease, such as osteoarthritis, there is a loss of chondroitin sulfate as the cartilage erodes. Studies indicate that chondroitin sulfate may promote regeneration of cartilage and healing of bone, which is consistent with the fact that the majority of glycosaminoglycans found in bone consist of chondroitin sulfate.
With chondroitin use, joint function appears to improve and pain to diminish in people with osteoarthritis, thus significally improving their quality of life.

Devil’s Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) is a native plant of southern Africa. Numerous tribes native to southern Africa have used devil’s claw for a wide variety of conditions, ranging from gastrointestinal difficulties to arthritic conditions. Devil’s claw has been widely used in Europe as a treatment for arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, reduce joint pain, joint support.

Devil’s claw contains three important constituents belonging to the iridoid glycoside family: harpagoside, harpagide, and procumbide. Harpagoside and other iridoid glycosides found in the plant may be responsible for the herb’s anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions, reduce joint pain.

Shark cartilage, which contains calcium, phosphorus and a family of complex carbohydrates and proteins, has been shown to reduce inflammation and joint pain, and decrease general wear and tear on joints.

As a dietary supplement take 1 capsule twice daily with a large glass of water.



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Moveable (synovial) joints in the skeletal system are characterized by the presence of a cushioning layer of cartilage on the ends of where the bones meet. This cartilage layer reduces the friction between the bones and allows for easier movement of the joint.

Cartilage is a tough but resilient connective tissue that is constantly rebuilding to compensate for the mechanical stresses put on the joint. In addition, the joint is surrounded by tough layers of connective tissue that hold the joint together and also secrete a fluid that bathes the cartilage pads to reduce friction further. However, accumulated wear and tear on the joints results in the breakdown and thinning of the cartilage, causing pain, inflammation, and loss of motion (osteoarthritis).

Cartilage is composed of molecules known as proteoglycans, which are deposited within a matrix of collagen fibers. This complex traps water and helps give cartilage its flexibility, resiliency, and resistance to compression.
Both chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine are essential for proteoglycan synthesis.

Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and provides much of its resistance to compression.
Glucosamine is essential for the formation of the cartilage, ligaments, synovial fluid, connective tissues and bones.

Glucosamine hydrochloride demonstrates more stability, purity, and higher concentration when compared to glucosamine sulfate. During the preparation of glucosamine sulfate, sodium and potassium are added, and about 83 percent of glucosamine hydrochloride is actual glucosamine while only about 63 percent of glucosamine sulfate is actual glucosamine. Therefore, one gets more glucosamine per capsule form glucosamine hydrochloride than from glucosamine sulfate.

A significant synergistic effect has been reported recently using combined glucosamine hydrochloride and chondroitin sulfate in an experimental study. The combination was more effective than either substance alone in inhibiting progression of degenerative cartilage lesions.

There are numerous European studies showing a clear benefit of Glucosamine supplements for relief of joint pain and stiffness associated with osteoarthritis.  (1,2)

Recent meta-analyses of the studies have supported the beneficial role of glucosamine supplements as a safe and effective approach to treating osteoarthritis. In general 1-3 months of glucosamine supplementation seems to be at least as effective as analgetic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), like acetaminophen and ibuprofen, in reducing the joint pain of osteoarthritis, but has no significant adverse effects.
A multi-central, randomized, controlled clinical trial of glucosamine hydrochloride comparing glucosamine sulfate for the treatment of osteoarthritis was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucosamine hydrochloride for the treatment of osteoarthritis. One hundred and forty-three patients suffering from knee or hip osteoarthritis were randomized into study (glucosamine hydrochloride) or control (glucosamine sulfate) group. Patients in study group orally took glucosamine hydrochloride 2 times daily for 6 weeks, each time 1 capsule, and those in control group took glucosamine sulfate 3 times daily for 6 weeks also, each time 2 capsules. RESULTS: The symptomatic improvement of joint pain at walking, at rest and stiffness after 6 week treatment with glucosamine hydrochloride was better than those with glucosamine sulfate. The results had significant difference (P < 0.05). Total effective rates of patients with glucosamine hydrochloride was 75.4% and 60.6% with glucosamine sulfate. The results suggested both glucosamine had the considerable efficacy in the treatment of osteoarthritis. No severe adverse events (SAE) was observed. (3)

Clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of glucosamine versus ibuprofen has showed the benefits of glucosamine. Patients were separated into two groups and administered either 1500 mg of glucosamine or 1200 mg of ibuprofen. The patients who received the Glucosamine treatment reported less pain than those taking ibuprofen, as well as better mobility and less swelling. Those taking the glucosamine also reported less adverse side effects than those taking ibuprofen. (4)

The randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study of 212 patients with knee osteoarthritis showed a greater decrease in pain in the group taking 1200 mg of glucosamine in comparison with placebo group. (5)

Chondroitin sulfate has been shown, in numerous double-blind trials, to relieve symptoms and possibly slow the progression of, or reverse, osteoarthritis.  (6)
Two recent meta-analyses indicate that chondroitin sulfate may be useful in the treatment of osteoarthritis.

In all, there were 13 studies (six involving glucosamine and seven involving chondroitin sulfate).
All 13 studies found positive results in hip or knee osteoarthritis. The authors of the meta-analysis judged a trial positive if there was 25% or more improvement in the treatment group compared with placebo. 

In clinical trial devil’s claw was found to reduce pain associated with osteoarthritis as effectively as the slow-acting analgesic/cartilage-protective drug.  In a double-blind, randomized, multicentre clinical study, the efficacy and tolerance of a herbal medicine product, Harpadol (6 capsules/day, each containing 435 mg of powdered cryoground powder Harpagophytum procumbens), was compared with diacerhein 100 mg/day in the treatment, for 4 months, of 122 patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the knee and hip. Assessments of pain and functional disability were made on a 10 cm horizontal visual analogue scale; severity of osteoarthritis was evaluated by Lequesne’s index. Spontaneous pain showed a significant improvement during the course of the study and there was no difference in the efficacy of the two treatments. Similarly, there was a progressive and significant reduction in the Lequesne functional index and no statistical difference was found between Harpadol and diacerhein. At completion of the study, patients taking Harpadol were using significantly less NSAIDs and antalgic drugs. The frequency of adverse events was significantly lower in the Harpadol group. The most frequent event reported was diarrhea, occurring in 8.1% and 26.7% of Harpadol and diacerhein patients respectively. The global tolerance assessment by patients at the end of treatment favoured Harpadol. The results of this study demonstrate that Harpadol is comparable in efficacy and superior in safety to diacerhein. (7)

The dried aqueous extract of Harpagophytum procumbens (Pedaliaceae) and its main iridoid glycoside, harpagoside, have been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in mice and rats, in order to validate or invalidate the involvement of this compound in such properties. This extract exerted significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects, from the dose 100 mg of dried secondary roots/kg, the first being obtained on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats) and the second being obtained against a chemical stimulus (writhing test in mice). Harpagoside does not appear to be involved in anti-inflammatory properties, since this iridoid glycoside did not protect against carrageenan inflammatory effects when it was used at 5 and 10 mg/kg; 5 mg corresponding to the quantity contained in 400 mg of dried secondary roots. The main iridoid glycoside of H. procumbens appears to be implicated in the peripheral analgesic properties of this species, but other compounds have to be involved, since the dose of 10 mg/kg exerted a significant protective effect. The absence of the activity of H. procumbens after an acid treatment (0.1 N hydrochloric acid), stomach, suggests the use of a suitable galenic preparation in order to protect the active principles from the action of the acid released in the stomach. (8)

1. Delafuente JC. Glucosamine in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2000 Feb; 26(1): 1-11.

2. Rindone JP, Hiller D, Collacott E, Nordhaugen N, Arriola G. Randomized, controlled trial of glucosamine for treating osteoarthritis of the knee. West J Med. 2000 Feb; 172(2): 91-4.

3. Müller-Fassbender H, Bach GL, Haase W, Rovati LC, Setnikar I. Glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1994; 2:61-69.

4. Zhang WB, Zhuang CY, Li JM, Yang ZP, Chen XL. Efficacy and safety evaluation of glucosamine hydrochloride in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2007 Jul 15;45(14):998-1001.

5. Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovatti LC, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet 2001; 357:251-256.

6. Kerzberg EM, Roldan EJA, Castelli G, Huberman ED. Combination of glycosaminoglycans and acetylsalicylic acid in knee osteoarthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1987;16:377-380.

7. Leblan D, Chantre P, Fournie B. Harpagophytum procumbens in the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Four-month results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind trial versus diacerhein. Joint Bone Spine. 2000;67(5):462-467.

8. Lanhers MC, Fleurentin J, Mortier F, Vinche A, Younos C. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of an aqueous extract of Harpagophytum procumbens. Planta Med. 1992 Apr;58(2):117-23.