If you suffer from low blood coagulation or increased blood pressure, consult your doctor before taking this product.
Ginkgo Forte GP contains standardized Ginkgo biloba (50:1) extract (24% ginkgo flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones), and standardized Gotu kola leaf extract (12:1) (10% asiaticosides).
The potent Santegra®’s formula created to support the cognitive function, improve blood circulation, and prevent cardiovascular diseases - Ginkgo Forte GP is a natural and safe remedy to make life better!
Ginkgo biloba is the world’s oldest tree, a "living fossil". It’s difficult to imagine that ginkgo biloba existed 200 million years ago. It is extremely hardy plant, resistant to many insects, diseases and pollution, which can reach heights up to 125 feet. Individual trees have been known to live as long as 1000 years. The Nature preserved this ancient tree, which unique properties are very beneficial for human health nowadays.
Native to China, Japan, and Korea, it was brought to Europe in 18 century, and after 50 years to North America, now it grows worldwide.
The Ginkgo tree has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for over 4,000 years. Various parts of the Ginkgo tree were used in the treatment of respiratory ailments, to improve circulation, as a digestive aid, as a tonic for memory loss in the elderly and as a longevity elixir.
The main therapeutic effect of ginkgo biloba extract is improvement of blood circulation. Ginkgo improves blood flow to the brain and the transmission of nerve signals. (1)
It helps to support brain function, enhance memory and concentration, improves the mood. (2)
Ginkgo biloba extract is beneficial for the cell’s metabolism, increases the uptake of glucose by brain cells, and promotes the energy balance in the cells. Ginkgo enhances the neurotransmitter synthesis, such as dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and acetylcholine. Additional neurotransmitter production positively influences endocrine, cardiovascular, and nervous systems.
Ginkgo biloba decreases vascular permeability, improves blood vessel elasticity, and normalizes blood pressure. (3)
Ginkgo biloba reduces activity of platelet activating factor, and thus reduces tendency of blood to clot.
Ginkgo biloba is a potent antioxidant, and its antioxidant action may also extend to the brain and retina of the eye. Preliminary trials have suggested potential benefit of ginkgo biloba extract for people with macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. (4)
Ginko biloba extract is used to support cardiovascular system. Ginko biloba has been shown to strengthen nervous system, improve cognitive function.
According to the clinical trials, the dosage of 120-160 mg Ginkgo biloba per day (standardized to 24% ginkgo flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones) for 8-12 weeks is suitable.
Ginkgo biloba extract is one of the most popular herbal remedies in the world, there are hundreds of different company’s formulations, but only few contain all active ingredients in the essential concentration.
Ginkgo Forte GP contains 80 mg of standardized Ginkgo biloba (24% ginkgo flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones) in one capsule. The recommended dosage is 2 capsules a day, thus the daily intake of ginko biloba is 160 mg, which satisfy the requirements.
The guaranteed content of the active ingredients is Ginkgo Forte GP main benefit that provides its efficacy and consistency.
The second active ingredient in Ginkgo Forte GP is Gotu kola (Centella asiatica).
Gotu kola has been important in the medicinal systems of central Asia for centuries. Gotu kola historically is considered to be a brain tonic; it is called "food for the brain".
In Sri Lanka, it was used to prolong life, as the leaves are commonly eaten by elephants, famous for their longevity.
In China, Gotu kola is one of the reported "miracle elixirs of life". This was attributed to a healer named LiChing Yun who, legends say, consumed gotu kola regularly and lived 256 years.
Gotu kola also has a historical reputation for boosting mental activity and for helping a variety of illnesses, such as high blood pressure, rheumatism, fever, and nervous disorders. Some of its common applications in Ayurvedic medicine include heart disease, water retention, hoarseness, bronchitis, and coughs in children, and as a poultice for many skin conditions. (6)
Nowadays Gotu kola is widely used all over the world. It is considered that Gotu kola enhances memory, stimulates thinking processes, improves brain and peripheral circulation, lowers intracranial pressure, has been used successfully to treat varicose veins, acts as a mild sedative, speeds wound heeling process, has mild diuretic properties.
Ginkgo Forte GP contains 150 mg of standardized Gotu kola leaf extract (12:1) (10% asiaticosides) in one capsule, which meets the recommended dosage and guarantees the efficacy of a new product.
Per 1 capsule:
Ginkgo Biloba leaf extract (50:1) (Standardized to 24% Ginkgo flavone glycosides – 19.2 mg and 6% terpene lactones – 4.8 mg) (equivalent to 4000 mg of crude herb) - 80.0 mg,
Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) leaf extract (12:1) (10% asiaticosides – 15 mg) (equivalent to 1800 mg of crude herb) – 150 mg.
Ginkgo biloba extract is beneficial for the cell’s metabolism, increases the uptake of glucose by brain cells, and promotes the energy balance in the cells. Ginkgo enhances the neurotransmitter synthesis, such as dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine and acetylcholine.
Gotu kola enhances memory, stimulates thinking processes, improves brain and peripheral circulation, lowers intracranial pressure, has been used successfully to treat varicose veins, acts as a mild sedative, speeds wound heeling process, has mild diuretic properties.
Take 1 capsule with a large glass of water in the morning with a meal, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner.
The two groups of phytochemicals to which ginkgo biloba is normally standardized, ginkgo flavone glycosides and terpene lactones, are considered to be the primary active constituents.
The flavone glycosides, which include quercetin, kaempherol and isorhamnetin, are responsible for the antioxidant properties of ginkgo biloba extract.
The terpene lactones, which include ginkgolides A, B and C, as well as bilobalide, possess several activities. These activities include neuroprotection, improvement of choline (a neurotransmitter) uptake in brain synapses and inhibition of platelet activating factor (which reduces the tendency of the blood to clot).
Interesting “side effects” appeared in the experiment with rats, which were assigned a diet that included either ginkgo biloba extract or placebo. Results showed that rats receiving ginkgo biloba extract learned quicker and made fewer errors than control animals, and unexpectedly, lived an average of five months longer. (Winter, 1998)
The primary active constituents of gotu kola are saponins (also called triterpenoids), which include asiaticoside.
Gotu kola supports circulatory system, improves circulation, strengthens veins and capillary, and normalizes high blood pressure.
Gotu kola helps stimulate nervous system, restore energy. Nervous system is supported due to the high content of vitamin B in this plant, which also helps to transform food into energy. Triterpenoids take part in transmission of nerve signals in the brain, thus improving the function of the central nervous system.
Ginkgo Forte GP contains standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (24% ginkgo flavone glycosides and 6% terpene lactones) and standardized Gotu kola (Centella asiatica) leaf extract (12:1) (10% asiaticosides), which guarantees its efficacy and consistency.
A meta-analysis, published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, analyzed the research conducted in over 40 clinical studies investigating Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of cerebral insufficiency. Cerebral insufficiency is associated with age-related mental decline or dementia. The resulting analysis concluded that the reviewed research was on par with research conducted on traditional prescription medications for treatment of dementia and that Ginkgo biloba extract is effective in reducing all symptoms of cerebral
insufficiency, including impaired mental function. (6)
In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized study, 72 patients with cerebral insufficiency (lack of blood flow to the brain) were subjected to a computerized test of short term memory. At the end of six weeks, the group receiving Ginkgo biloba extract exhibited a statistically significant improvement in short term memory capacity while the placebo group showed no
significant increase. (7)
Clinical evidence indicates that Ginkgo biloba extract may be useful in the treatment of certain types of depression, notably "resistant" depression. In one placebo-controlled study, patients who continued to exhibit symptoms of depression after the use of antidepressants were given 240 mg per day of Ginkgo biloba extract. The patients receiving Ginkgo biloba extract experienced a significant reduction in depressive symptoms as well as an improvement in cognitive function. (8)
In an open clinical trial of 60 patients having erectile dysfunction, taking 60mg of ginkgo per day, 50% of the patients regained potency and 25% showed improved arterial blood flow
following 6 months of supplementation (5% showed no improvement). (9)
Recently there has been much speculation, that Ginkgo biloba extract may act as a ‘smart drug' or nootropic agent in the healthy young to improve intelligence. A 30-d randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in which 61 participants were administered a battery of validated neuropsychological tests before and after treatment with Ginkgo biloba extract. Statistical analysis indicated significant improvements in speed of information processing working memory and executive processing attributable to the EGb. (10)
The effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb(50)) on nerve regeneration and its dose-effect relationship was investigated in a rat model. Sciatic nerve transection and repair was done in 120 Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were divided into four groups and given normal saline, low-dose EGb(50) (50 mg kg(-1) d(-1)), moderate-dose EGb(50) (100 mg kg(-1) d(-1)), and high-dose EGb(50) (200 mg kg(-1) d(-1)), respectively. Electrophysiological, histological examinations, and functional evaluation were conducted at various postoperative intervals. Sensory regeneration distance, sciatic functional index (SFI), motor nerve conduction velocity, compound muscle action potential, axon regeneration index, and muscle mass were significantly higher in EGb(50) groups than in saline groups. All but SFI of those parameters were better in high-dose group when compared with those in moderate- and low-dose groups. EGb(50) has the effect of promoting regeneration of injured peripheral nerve.The higher the dose, the better the result. (11)
A large body of data emphasizes the central role of mitochondrial dysfunction during aging and as an early event in neurodegenerative diseases. In one study PC12 cells and dissociated mice brain cells, as well as isolated mitochondria were used to investigate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on mitochondrial functions. Mitochondrial abnormalities during aging were mimicked by using external factors (nitrosative stress, serum deprivation and complexes inhibitors) consequently altering mitochondrial processes, such as energy metabolism. As markers for the function of mitochondria, ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured. Ginkgo biloba extract alleviated mitochondrial functions in vitro at concentrations as low as 0.01mg/ml. Treating two different age groups of mice with Ginkgo biloba extract 761 (100mg/kg body weight for 14 days) showed beneficial effects on complexes I, IV and V of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and against nitrosative stress. Interestingly, these effects were only observed in the aged mice group, proving higher efficacy of EGb 761 during aging. The single components of Ginkgo biloba extract showed in both cell models protection of the mitochondrial membrane potential indicating that a complementary action of the components is responsible for the versatile actions of EGb 761. (12)
The prevention or deceleration of atherogenesis is one of the most significant anti-aging objectives since this is a matter of avoidance of myocardial infarction and stroke. To approach this prophylactic aim, phytochemical nutrition counteracting peroxidation of blood lipids based on their scavenger qualities for reactive oxygen species (ROS) can possibly serve. For example, oxidized LDL particles are highly atherogenic. Against this background, we investigated in a pilot study the effect of Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761: Rökan novo), the free oxygen radical scavenging properties of which are well-documented, on the atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation in cardiovascular high-risk patients. In eight patients who had undergone an aortocoronary bypass operation, the reduction of atherosclerotic nanoplaque formation amounted to 11.9 +/- 2.5% (p < 0.0078) and of nanoplaque size to 24.4 +/- 8.1% (p < 0.0234), respectively, after a 2-month therapy with Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761, 2 x 120 mg daily, Rökan novo, Spitzner Arzneimittel, Ettlingen, Germany). Additionally, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was upregulated by 15.7 +/- 7.0% (p < 0.0391), the quotient oxLDL/LDL lowered by 17.0 +/- 5.5% (p < 0.0234) and lipoprotein(a) concentration decreased by 23.4 +/- 7.9% (p < 0.0234) in the patients' blood after the 2-month medication regimen. The concentration of the vasodilating substances cAMP and cGMP was augmented by 37.5 +/- 9.1% (p < 0.0078) and 27.7 +/- 8.3% (p < 0.0156), respectively. A multimodal regression analysis reveals a basis for a mechanistic explanation of nanoplaque reduction under ginkgo treatment. The atherosclerosis inhibiting effect is due to an upregulation in the body's own radical scavenging enzymes and an attenuation of the risk factors oxLDL/LDL and Lp(a). Furthermore, the significant increase in the vasodilator cAMP and cGMP concentration powerfully supports the maintenance of an open bypass. (13)
The antidepressant effect of Ginkgo biloba extract was examined using two behavioral models, the forced swimming test (FST) in rats and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. Ginkgo biloba extract significantly reduced immobility time in the FST at a dosage of 10 and 50 mg/kg body weight after repeated oral treatment for 14 d, although no change of motor dysfunction was observed with the same dosage in the open field test. These results indicate that Ginkgo biloba extract might possess an antidepressant activity. In addition, v markedly shortened immobility time in the TST after acute inter-peritoneal treatment at a dosage of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The present study clearly demonstrated that Ginkgo biloba extract exerts an antidepressant effect in these two behavioral models. (14)
The free-radical-scavenger activity of Ginkgo flavone glycosides has been proved in “in-vivo” and “n-vitro” experiments by French scientists.
Free radicals are involved in numerous skin diseases, especially inflammatory reactions and photosenescence. To identify possible free-radical scavenging by an original terpene-free Ginkgo biloba extract containing 33% Ginkgo flavone glycosides, mostly quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, they studied its activity by means of in-vitro and in-vivo experiments, using superoxide dismutase (SOD) as a positive control. By means of an in-vitro electron-spin resonance (ESR) assay they compared the activity of the Ginkgo extract with that of its two aglycones, quercetin and kaempferol. Quercetin and Ginkgo extract had significant antioxidant properties without pro-oxidant effect. In contrast, kaempferol, above an optimum antioxidant concentration, behaved as a pro-oxidant. The in-vivo experiments were conducted on an anti-inflammatory model. The cutaneous blood flux which reflects the skin inflammatory level was recorded by means of a laser Doppler perfusion imager. The data confirmed the free-radical-scavenging property of both Ginkgo extract and SOD. The Ginkgo extract significantly inhibited (37%) cutaneous blood flux to the same extent as SOD. These data confirmed the antioxidant property of Ginkgo extract. A complementary spin-trapping technique would enable identification of the free radicals involved. This Ginkgo extract should be useful for protection of the skin against free radicals. (15)
Clinical trials have also shown gotu kola can help those with chronic venous insufficiency.
Gotu kola strengthens the collagen lining of vein walls, enhances circulation, and reduces inflammation in varicose veins.
Ninety-four patients suffering from venous insufficiency of the lower limbs participated in a multicenter, double-blind versus placebo study. After randomization, they were allotted for a treatment period of two months to one of three groups: TECA 120 mg/day, TECA 60 mg/day, or placebo. A significant difference (p less than 0.05) in favor of TECA was shown for the symptoms of heaviness in the lower limbs and edema, as well as for the overall evaluation by the patient. The venous distensibility measured by a mercury strain gauge plethysmograph at three occlusion pressures was improved for the TECA groups but aggravated for the placebo group. The results showed a significant dose-related improvement in the treated groups. (16)
Since antioxidants have been reported to play a significant role in the wound healing process the scientists studied the effect of asiaticoside on the levels of certain antioxidants in the wound so as to explore the possible involvement of such a mechanism in the asiaticoside induced wound healing. Asiaticoside application (0.2%, topical) twice daily for 7 days to excision-type cutaneous wounds in rats led to increased enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, namely superoxide dismutase (35%), catalase (67%), glutathione peroxidase (49%), vitamin E (77%) and ascorbic acid (36%) in newly formed tissues. It also resulted in a several fold decrease in lipid peroxide levels (69%) as measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. However, continued application for 14 days showed no significant difference in these antioxidants compared with their values in vehicle treated wound tissue. It appears from the present study that asiaticosides enhanced induction of antioxidant levels at an initial stage of healing which may be an important contributory factor in the healing properties of this substance. (17)
Triterpenoids have been shown to aid in wound healing, prevent scar formation. One preliminary trial in humans found that gotu kola extract improved infectious wound healing. (18)
Oral treatment with 50 mg X kg(-1) day(-1) of crude methanol extract of Centella asiatica for 14 days significantly increased the anti-oxidant enzymes, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), and anti-oxidants like glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid decreased in lymphoma-bearing mice. (19)
Gotu kola has been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to treat anxiety. In the clinical trial, scientists gave 40 healthy adults either a very high onetime dose of 12 g of gotu kola or a placebo. Then they measured the subjects' startle responses with loud bursts of noise. After 60 minutes, the gotu kola group displayed less than half the startle response of the control
Preliminary studies showed Gotu kola ability to boost memory, overcome stress and tiredness.
Two Indian studies reported that it helped improve intelligence, general mental abilities, and behavior in mentally retarded children.
Interesting results were shown in animal study. Rats that ate gotu kola every day for 14 days had three to 60 times better retention of learned behaviors than rats that took a placebo.
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2. Mix JA, Crews WD. An examination of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6:219-29.
3. Clostre F. From the body to the cell membranes: the different levels of pharmacological action of Ginkgo biloba extract. In: Rokan (Ginkgo biloba): Recent Results in Pharmacology and Clinic.Fünfgeld EW, ed. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1988, 180-98.
4. Lebuisson DA, Leroy L, Rigal G. Treatment of senile macular degeneration with Ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary double-blind, drug versus placebo study. Presse Med 1986;15:1556-8 [in French].
5. Kartnig T. Clinical applications of Centella asiatica (L) Urb. In Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, and Pharmacology, vol. 3., Craker LE, Simon JE (eds). Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1986, 145-73.
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8. Schubert et al. Depressive episode primarily unresponsive to therapy in elderly patients: efficacy of ginkgo biloba extract (EGB 761) in combination with antidepressants. Geriatr Forsch 1993;3:45-53.
9. Sikora R, et al. Ginkgo biloba extract in the therapy of erectile dysfunction. J Urol 1989;141:188A.
10. Con Stough, Jodi Clarke, Jenny Lloyd, Pradeep J. Nathan. Neuropsychological changes after 30-day Ginkgo biloba administration in healthy participants. The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology (2001), 4: 131-134 Cambridge University Press
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13. Siegel G, Schäfer P, Winkler K, Malmsten M. Ginkgo biloba (EGb 761) in arteriosclerosis prophylaxis. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2007;157(13-14):288-94
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18. Morisset R, Cote NG, Panisset JC, et al. Evaluation of the healing activity of hydrocotyle tincture in the treatment of wounds. Phytother Res 1987;1:117-21.
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20. Bradwejn J, Zhou Y, Koszycki D, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effects of Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica) on acoustic startle response in healthy subjects. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000;20:680–684.