Burdock (100)

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Natural product with multiple beneficial effects on human health, the combination of the unique old recipes with the latest achievements of nutritional science.
The product has been manufactured using high quality pure herbs and the technology that ensures all their beneficial properties intact, in strict compliance with GMP and TÜV regulations.

Burdock is a natural Santegra®’s product, obtained from the burdock root (Arctium m.), which has various beneficial effects on human health.
Wild burdock is native to Eurasia but has been naturalized across the world. It has a wide history of use in many countries as food and medicine.

Burdock root is a good source of protein, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, selenium, phosphorus, and B complex, E, C vitamins. These nutrients play an important part in supporting your health.

Burdock helps regulate the balance of salt and water in the body. 

Burdock roots contain significant amounts of dietary fiber (up to 45% of the polysaccharide inulin) that promote growth of healthy bacteria in the colon (5) and can help with bowel regularity.

Burdock root has been used for centuries in traditional medicine for the digestive system, it soothes the digestive tract and promotes absorption of nutrients.
Burdock roots are bitter and thus capable of stimulating and enhancing digestive secretions and aiding digestion. Burdock root protects the mucous membrane of the digestive tract from irritation. (3)

Burdock root contain flavonoids quercetin, luteolin, and the lignans arctiin and arctigenin, which have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, and free radical scavenging properties. (2, 7, 8)

Burdock is one of the well-known detoxifying herbs in both Chinese and Western herbal medicine, it has been used in traditional herbal medicine as a "blood purifier" for centuries. The root is thought to eliminate toxins from the body, including heavy metals.

Burdock roots have alterative, diuretic, choleretic, diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial properties that help to detoxify the body. (6)
Due to these properties burdock root can support liver, kidneys, and pancreas functions.
The body detoxification benefits different skin conditions.

Burdock root can also be useful as a supplementary treatment for joint discomfort because it can help dissolve salt deposits in the joints and fight inflammation. (8)

Burdock is traditionally used  to combat hair loss, to strengthen and nourish hair.

Per 1 capsule:

Burdock (Arctium m.) root – 420 mg.

 

Packaging size: 100 capsules.

As a dietary supplement take 2 capsules 3 times daily with a large glass of water, for 1 – 1.5 month.


Contraindication

Individual intolerance.

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The name Arctium comes from the Greek “arktos” meaning bear, which is an allusion to the roughness of the burs. The prickly burrs of the burdock catch on anything they can find to spread their seeds. It was these burrs that inspired the invention of velcro.

Burdock is known for many centuries and used to treat a multitude of medical problems. 
In the 1st century Greek physician Dioscorides mentioned burdock in his work «Materia medica» and recommended it for consumption and cough.
During the Middle Ages, English herbalists used burdock root for the treatment of boils, scurvy, and rheumatism.
Indigenous tribes, including the Iroquois, Cherokee, and Delaware, used burdock root to treat rheumatism and as a blood cleanser. In recent years, many clinical trials have proved the unique properties of this plant.

Burdock root was reported to contain about 45% of the polysaccharide inulin.
For several years, there has been an increasing awareness of the fundamental role that the complex bacterial ecosystem plays in our health. Inulin is a dietary fiber, that escape metabolism in the small intestine. Its selective fermentation by the human colonic microflora leads to a shift in the composition of the indigenous bacterial ecosystem, in favor of health-promoting bifidobacteria. (1) In addition to the dietary fiber effects on improved bowel regularity, there are other physiological advantages, including improved mineral absorption, enhanced natural host defenses and colonic protection, improved gut health. 

Inulin positively influences metabolism, helps to improve lipid (cholesterol, triglycerides, etc.) metabolism, thus lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical College, Taiwan.
The effects of Arctium lappa L. (root) on anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenger activity were investigated. Subcutaneous administration of A. lappa crude extract significantly decreased carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. When simultaneously treated with CCl4, it produced pronounced activities against CCl4-induced acute liver damage. The free radical scavenging activity of its crude extract was also examined by means of an electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer. The IC50 of A. lappa extract on superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenger activity was 2.06 mg/ml and 11.8 mg/ml, respectively. These findings suggest that Arctium lappa possess free radical scavenging activity. The inhibitory effects on carrageenan-induced paw edema and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity could be due to the scavenging effect of A. lappa. (2)

Department of Pharmacology, Sector of Biological Sciences, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.
Arctium lappa L. is used in folk medicine as a diuretic, depurative and digestive stimulant and in dermatological conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect and the possible mechanisms involved in the gastroprotective effects of a chloroform extract (CE) of the roots from A. lappa and its fractions. Oral pretreatment with CE (10, 30 and 100 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced gastric lesions induced by ethanol by 61%, 70% and 76%, respectively. Oral administration of CE (100 mg kg(-1) per day for 7 days) reduced the chronic gastric ulceration induced by acetic acid by 52%. Intraduodenal CE (100, 300 and 600 mg kg(-1)) reduced the total acidity of gastric secretion by 22%, 22% and 33%, respectively, while i.p. administration (10, 30 and 100 mg kg(-1)) inhibited total acidity by 50%, 60% and 67%, respectively. In-vitro, CE inhibited H+, K+ -ATPase activity with an EC50 of 53 microgmL(-1) and fraction A (30 and 100 microgmL(-1)) reduced this by 48% and 89%, respectively. CE had no effect on gastrointestinal motility. CE (250 microgmL(-1)) and fraction B (100 and 250 microgmL(-1)) had free-radical scavenging ability, inhibiting 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity by 50%, 20% and 55%, respectively. Collectively, the results show that the CE protects animals from gastric lesions by reducing gastric acid secretion via inhibition of gastric H+, K+ -ATPase. (3)

Arctium lappa Linne (burdock) is a perennial herb which is popularly cultivated as a vegetable. In order to evaluate its hepatoprotective effects, a group of rats (n = 10) was fed a liquid ethanol diet (4 g of absolute ethanol/ 80 ml of liquid basal diet) for 28 days and another group (n = 10) received a single intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in order to potentiate the liver damage on the 21st day (1 day before the beginning of A. lappa treatment). Control group rats were given a liquid basal diet which did not contain absolute ethanol. When 300 mg/kg A. lappa was administered orally 3 times per day in both the 1-day and 7-day treatment groups, some biochemical and histopathological parameters were significantly altered, both in the ethanol group and the groups receiving ethanol supplemented with CCl4.
A. lappa significantly improved various pathological and biochemical parameters which were worsened by ethanol plus CCl4-induced liver damage, such as the ethanol plus CCl4-induced decreases in total cytochrome P-450 content and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity, increases in serum triglyceride levels and lipid peroxidation (the deleterious peroxidative and toxic malondialdehyde metabolite may be produced in quantity) and elevation of serum transaminase levels. It could even restore the glutathione content and affect the histopathological lesions. These results tended to imply that the hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol and potentiated by CCl4 could be alleviated with 1 and 7 days of A. lappa treatment. The hepatoprotective mechanism of A. lappa could be attributed, at least in part, to its antioxidative activity, which decreases the oxidative stress of hepatocytes, or to other unknown protective mechanism(s). (4)

To investigate the prebiotic potential of burdock inulin (B-INU), the in vitro and in vivo effects of B-INU on bacterial growth were studied. B-INU significantly stimulated the growth of bifidobacteria in Man-Rogosa-Sharp (MRS) medium, anaerobically. Compared with chicory inulin (C-INU), long-chain inulin (L-INU) and fructooligosaccharides (FOS), 1% (w/v) B-INU promoted the specific growth rate of beneficial bacteria. The decreases of media pH with B-INU were almost the same as that with C-INU and FOS. In vivo, B-INU significantly increased the number of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (P<0.05) in cecal content. Mice fed with B-INU, C-INU and FOS for 14 days had greater number of cecal beneficial bacteria population than those fed with L-INU for 14 days. In addition, all fructans did not cause any side effects, such as eructation and bloating.
Results indicated that inulin extracted from edible burdock showed prebiotic properties that could promote health. (5)

Arctium lappa, commonly known as burdock, is being promoted/recommended as a healthy and nutritive food in Chinese societies. Burdock has been used therapeutically in Europe, North America, and Asia for hundreds of years. The roots, seeds and leaves of burdock have been investigated in view of its popular uses in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this review, the reported therapeutic effects of the active compounds present in the different botanical parts of burdock are summarized. In the root, the active ingredients have been found to "detoxify" blood in terms of Traditional Chinese Medicine and promote blood circulation to the skin surface, improving the skin quality/texture and curing skin diseases like eczema. Antioxidants and antidiabetic compounds have also been found in the root. In the seeds, some active compounds possess anti-inflammatory effects and potent inhibitory effects on the growth of tumors. In the leaf extract, the active compounds isolated can inhibit the growth of micro-organisms in the oral cavity. The medicinal uses of burdock in treating chronic diseases such as cancers, diabetes and AIDS have been reported. (6)

Arctigenin (AR) and its glycoside, arctiin, are two major active ingredients of Arctium lappa L (A lappa), a popular medicinal herb and health supplement frequently used in Asia. In the past several decades, bioactive components from A lappa have attracted the attention of researchers due to their promising therapeutic effects. In the current article, we aimed to provide an overview of the pharmacology of AR and arctiin, focusing on their anti-inflammatory effects, pharmacokinetics properties and clinical efficacies. Compared to acrtiin, AR was reported as the most potent bioactive component of A lappa in the majority of studies. AR exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) via modulation of several cytokines. Due to its potent anti-inflammatory effects, AR may serve as a potential therapeutic compound against both acute inflammation and various chronic diseases. However, pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated the extensive glucuronidation and hydrolysis of AR in liver, intestine and plasma, which might hinder its in vivo and clinical efficacy after oral administration. Based on the reviewed pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characteristics of AR, further pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies of AR via alternative administration routes are suggested to promote its ability to serve as a therapeutic agent as well as an ideal bioactive marker for A lappa. (7)

This study was designed to examine the effect of Burdock root tea on inflammatory markers and oxidative stress indicators in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA).
Thirty‐six patients (10 men and 26 women) aged 50–70 years old with knee osteoarthritis referred to the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Hospitals, were selected for the study and randomly divided into two groups. Anthropometric measurements, including height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured. For all individuals along the 42 days of study period, the same drug treatments, including two lots of 500 mg acetaminophen twice a day and one glucosamine 500 mg once a day, were considered. The intervention group received daily three cups of Burdock root tea (each cup containing 2 g/150 mL boiled water) half‐hour after the meal. The control group received three cups containing 150 cc boiled water daily. We assessed inflammatory markers such as high sensitivity C‐reactive protein (hs‐CRP) and interleukin‐6 (IL‐6) and oxidative stress indicators such as total antioxidants capacity (TAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances before and after the intervention.
The results showed that burdock root tea significantly decreased the levels of serum IL‐6 (P = 0.002), hs‐CRP (P = 0.003) and malondialdehyde (P < 0.001), while the levels of serum TAC (P < 0.001) and activities of SOD (P = 0.009) were significantly increased. GPX activities increased but not significantly.
The results suggested that Arctium lappa L. root tea improves inflammatory status and oxidative stress in patients with knee osteoarthritis. (8)

To identify potential genes that may be involved in lipid metabolism in rats after treatment with aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L (burdock).
Rats were randomly divided into six groups: (i) control (standard diet); (ii) model group (high-fat diet only); (iii) high -fat diet and low-dose aqueous burdock root extract (2 g/kg); (iv) high-fat diet and moderate-dose aqueous burdock root extract (4 g/kg); (v) high-fat diet and high-dose aqueous burdock root extract (8 g/kg); and (vi) a positive control group exposed to a high-fat diet and simvastatin (10 mg/kg). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis was performed to find the potential candidate genes involved in the modulation of blood lipids by treatment with aqueous burdock root extract.
Burdock root extract reduced body weight and cholesterol levels in rats. KEGG analysis revealed 113 genes that were involved in metabolic pathways. Of these, 27 potential genes associated with blood lipid metabolism were identified.
Conclusions: Aqueous extract of burdock root reduced body weight and cholesterol in rats, possibly by modulating the differential expression of genes. (9)

Recently, worldwide dietary reference intakes have been considered an important guideline for public health. Some governments and the World Health Organization (WHO) provide guidelines concerning dietary intake. Although an ingredient may have a history of use as a culinary material, changes in the environment over time suggest that the acceptable maximum intake each of food/culinary material should be regularly evaluated. Arctium lappa L. has been used as a culinary material for many centuries in Korea and Japan and some recent studies have reported related therapeutic effects. However, there are no reports on the safety of repeated oral administration. In this study, we evaluated the safety of an 8-weeks repeated oral intake of A. lappa.
In order to evaluate the safety of A. lappa, 32 mice were divided into four treatment groups and treated for 8-weeks with ad libitum access to the relevant diet and water: (1) control; (2) 60% fat diet; (3) 60%-fat diet and 50 mg/kg/day A. lappa treatment; and (4) 60%-fat diet and 250 mg/kg/day A lappa treatment.
The results of the experiment: Arctium lappa treatment decreases body weight gain from a high-fat diet, it does not modulate the white blood cell level and differential count but suppresses the blood glucose level.
We concluded that treatment with <250 mg/kg A. lappa, which was within the safety range, resulted in body weight decrease and blood glucose suppression. (10)

1. Alexiou, H.; Franck, A. Prebiotic inulin-type fructans: nutritional benefits beyond dietary fibre source. Nutrition Bulletin, Volume 33, Number 3, September 2008, pp. 227-233(7)

2. Lin CC, Lu JM, Yang JJ, Chuang SC, Ujiie T. Anti-inflammatory and radical scavenge effects of Arctium lappa. Am J Chin Med. 1996;24(2):127-37.

3. Dos Santos AC, Baggio CH, Freitas CS, Lepieszynski J, Mayer B, Twardowschy A, Missau FC, Dos Santos EP, Pizzolatti MG, Marques MC. Gastroprotective activity of the chloroform extract of the roots from Arctium lappa L.J Pharm Pharmacol. 2008 Jun;60(6):795-801

4. Liver Injuries Induced by Chronic Ethanol Consumption and Potentiated by Carbon Tetrachloride. Song-Chow Lina, Chia-Hsien Linc, Chun-Ching Line, Yun-Ho Linb, Chin-Fa Chend, I-Cheng Chena, Li-Ya Wanga Journal of Biomedical Science 2002;9:401-409 (DOI: 10.1159/000064549)

5. Li D, Kim JM, Jin Z, Zhou J. Prebiotic effectiveness of inulin extracted from edible burdock. Anaerobe. 2008 Feb; 14(1):29-34. Epub 2007 Nov 26.

6. Yuk-Shing Chan, Long-Ni Cheng, Jian-Hong Wu, Enoch Chan. A review of the pharmacological effects of Arctium lappa (burdock). Inflammopharmacology 19(5):245-54 · October 2010.

7. Qiong Gao, Mengbi Yang, and Zhong Zuo, Overview of the anti-inflammatory effects, pharmacokinetic properties and clinical efficacies of arctigenin and arctiin from Arctium lappa L., Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2018 May; 39(5): 787–801.

8. Leila Maghsoumi‐Norouzabad, Beitollah Alipoor, Reza Abed, Bina Eftekhar Sadat, Mehran Mesgari‐Abbasi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi. Effects of Arctium lappa L. (Burdock) root tea on inflammatory status and oxidative stress in patients with knee osteoarthritis. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases. First published: 28 October 2014

9. Bo Hou, Wencheng Wang, Hui Gao, Shanglang Cai, and Chunbo Wang. Effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on serum lipid metabolism. J Int Med Res. 2018 Jan; 46(1): 158–167.

10. Bok SH, Cho SS, Bae CS, Park DH, Park KM. Safety of 8-weeks oral administration of Arctium lappa L. Lab Anim Res. 2017 Sep;33(3):251-255. doi: 10.5625/lar.2017.33.3.251. Epub 2017 Sep 27.