Pau d'Arco GP (30)
Pau d’Arco GP is a natural “antibiotic”, immune system stimulant, contains Pau d’Arco bark extract (4:1) with 3% of active ingredients - naphtoquinones that guarantees its effectiveness and consistency.
The product has been manufactured using high quality pure raw materials and the technology that ensures all their beneficial properties intact, in strict compliance with GMP and TÜV regulations.
Pau d’Arco tea has been used for many centuries by the tribes of South America. The ancient Incas and Aztecs were probably the first to discover the herb’s healing powers.
Pau d’Arco was applied externally and internally for the treatment of fevers, infections, colds, flu, syphilis, cancer, respiratory problems, skin ulcerations and boils, dysentery, gastro-intestinal problems of all kinds, debilitating conditions such as arthritis and prostatitis, and circulation disturbances. It was used to relieve pain, kill germs, increase the flow of urine, and even as an antidote to poisons. (1)
The Guarani, Tupi and other tribes called the Pau d’Arco tree "Tajy," meaning "to have strength and vigor," or simply, "The Divine Tree."
One of the most important properties of Pau d’Arco is its ability to mobilize the body’s host defenses.
The chemical constituents and active ingredients of Pau d’Arco have been well documented. The main active ingredients in this plant are the quinones, the most important ones being naphthoquinones, of which lapachol have shown the most documented biological activity.
Pau d’Arco is a potent antioxidant. In vitro trials show definite inhibition of free radicals and inflammatory leukotrienes by Pau d’Arco constituents.
Some constituents or groups of constituents of Pau d’Arco have been found to suppress tumor formation and reduce tumor viability, both in experimental animal trials and in clinical settings involving human patients.
Pau d’Arco has antimicrobial effect; naphthoquinones show potent antifungal properties in laboratory tests.
The anti-inflammatory and wound healing actions of Pau d’Arco extract were also demonstrated in clinical studies.
There is some evidence that Pau d’Arco can be useful in lessening the pain.
Pau d’Arco has mild soothing effect; relieves the irritation of inflamed mucous membranes (for example sore throat).
Pau d’arco due to its unique properties is very popular all over the world now. Unfortunately, its popularity has been controversial due to varying results obtained with its use. For the most part, these seem to have been caused by a lack of quality control. Some products exported from South America as “pau d’arco,” have few to none of the active constituents.
Santegra® thoroughly controls the quality of raw materials and manufactured products. That is why Pau d’Arco GP contains Pau d’Arco bark extract (4:1) with 3% naphtoquinones, which guarantees its effectiveness.
Pau d’Arco GP also contains rutin – widely used antioxidant that strengthens blood vessels, decreases capillary permeability, and increases its elasticity.
Per 1 capsule:
Pau d’Arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa) bark 4:1 extract (standardized to 3% naphthoquinones) (equivalent to 1400 mg of crude bark) - 350 mg, Rutin – 25 mg.
As a dietary supplement, take 1-2 capsules daily with a glass of water.
Pau d’Arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa) inner bark contains a large amount of chemicals known as quinoids, and a small quantity of benzenoids and flavonoids. These quinoids (and, chiefly, naphthoquinones – lapachol, beta-lapachone etc.) have shown the most documented biological activity.
Researches have shown that lapachol has antitumorous, antiedemic, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antiviral, bactericidal, and antifungal activity.
Pau d'arco has demonstrated broad spectrum of actions against a number of disease-causing microorganisms. Antimicrobial properties of many of pau d'arco's active phytochemicals were demonstrated in several clinical studies, in which they exhibited strong “in vitro” activity against bacteria and yeast. Naphthoquinones have antifungal activity. (2)
Tabebuia impetiginosa active constituents have demonstrated “in vitro” antiviral properties against various viruses (including Herpes I and II, influenza, and vesicular stomatitis).
Its antiparasitic actions against various parasites (including malaria, schistosoma, and trypanosoma) have been confirmed as well.
Finally, bark extracts of Pau d'arco have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity (in mice and rats).
In clinical trials naphthoquinones demonstrated «in vitro» significant activity against cancerous tumors. (3,4) One study reported that lapachol increased the life span of mice inoculated with leukemic cells by over 80%.
Another chemical in Pau d'arco, beta-lapachone, has demonstrated in laboratory studies to have activities similar to lapachol, with few side-effects.
Impaired wound healing is a serious problem for diabetic patients. Wound healing is a complex process that requires the cooperation of many cell types, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and macrophages. beta-Lapachone, a natural compound extracted from the bark of the lapacho tree (Tabebuia avellanedae), is well known for its antitumor, antiinflammatory, and antineoplastic effects at different concentrations and conditions, but its effects on wound healing have not been studied. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of beta-lapachone on wound healing and its underlying mechanism. In the present study, we demonstrated that a low dose of beta-lapachone enhanced the proliferation in several cells, facilitated the migration of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and human endothelial EAhy926 cells through different MAPK signaling pathways, and accelerated scrape-wound healing in vitro. Application of ointment with or without beta-lapachone to a punched wound in normal and diabetic (db/db) mice showed that the healing process was faster in beta-lapachone-treated animals than in those treated with vehicle only. In addition, beta-lapachone induced macrophages to release VEGF and EGF, which are beneficial for growth of many cells. Our results showed that beta-lapachone can increase cell proliferation, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells, and migration of fibroblasts and endothelial cells and thus accelerate wound healing. Therefore, we suggest that beta-lapachone may have potential for therapeutic use for wound healing. (5)
The antiplatelet and antiproliferative activities of extract of Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark (taheebo) were investigated using washed rabbit platelets and cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. n-Hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed marked and selective inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by collagen and arachidonic acid (AA) in a dose-dependent manner. These fractions, especially the chloroform fraction, also significantly suppressed AA liberation induced by collagen in [(3)H]AA-labeled rabbit platelets. The fractions, especially the chloroform fraction, potently inhibited cell proliferation and DNA synthesis induced by platelet derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, and inhibited the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) stimulated by PDGF-BB, in the same concentration range that inhibits VSMC proliferation and DNA synthesis. (6)
The growth-inhibiting activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC dried inner bark-derived constituents against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 was examined using paper disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) bioassays. The activity of the isolated compounds was compared to that of the commercially available anti-Helicobacter pylori agents, amoxicillin, metronidazole, and tetracycline. The biologically active components of Tabebuia impetiginosa dried inner bark (taheebo) were characterized by spectroscopic analysis as 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone, anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, and 2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone (lapachol). With the paper disc diffusion assay 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited strong activity against Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43504 at 0.01 mg/disc. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid, lapachol and metronidazole were less effective, exhibiting moderate anti-Helicobacter pylori activity at 0.1 mg/disc. Amoxicillin and tetracycline were the most potent compounds tested, displaying very strong activity at 0.005 mg/disc. 2-(Hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone exhibited moderate activity at this dose. Tetracycline still had strong activity at 0.001 mg/disc while amoxicillin had little activity at this dose. In the MIC bioassay, 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone (2 microg/mL), anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (8 microg/mL), and lapachol (4 microg/mL) were more active than metronidazole (32 microg/mL) but less effective than amoxicillin (0.063 microg/mL) and tetracycline (0.5 microg/mL). The anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of seven 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives (structurally related to lapachol), 1,4-naphthoquinone, 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin), 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione), 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (lawsone), 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin), 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (juglone), and 2,3-dichloro-1,4-naphthoquinone (dichlone) was also evaluated using the paper disc assay. Menadione and plumbagin were the most potent compounds tested with the later still exhibiting very strong activity at 0.001 mg/disc. Menadione, juglone and tetracycline had strong activity at this low dose while the latter two compounds and amoxicillin had very strong activity at 0.005 mg/disc. Lawsone was unusual in that it had very strong activity at 0.1 and 0.05 mg/disc but weak activity at doses of 0.01 mg/disc and lower. Naphthazalin, lapachol and dichlone had similar activities while metronidazole had the lowest activity of all compounds tested. These results may be an indication of at least one of the pharmacological actions of taheebo. The Tabebuia impetiginosa dried inner bark-derived materials, particularly 2-(hydroxymethyl)anthraquinone, merit further study as potential Helicobacter pylori eradicating agents or lead compounds. (7)
Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, California 94710, USA.
Volatiles were isolated from the dried inner bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa using steam distillation under reduced pressure followed by continuous liquid-liquid extraction. The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major volatile constituents of T. impetiginosa were 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (52.84 microg/g), 4-methoxyphenol (38.91 microg/g), 5-allyl-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene (elemicin; 34.15 microg/g), 1-methoxy-4-(1E)-1-propenylbenzene (trans-anethole; 33.75 microg/g), and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (30.29 microg/g). The antioxidant activity of the volatiles was evaluated using two different assays. The extract exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on the formation of conjugated diene hydroperoxides (from methyl linoleate) at a concentration of 1000 microg/mL. The extract also inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for 40 days at a level of 5 microg/mL. The antioxidative activity of T. impetiginosa volatiles was comparable with that of the well-known antioxidants, alpha-tocopherol, and butylated hydroxytoluene. (8)
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, P.O. Box 3157, 60430-270 Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.
Drugs containing a quinone moiety, such as anthracyclines, mitoxantrones and lapachol, show excellent anticancer activity. In this study, 2-butanoylamine-1,4-naphthoquinone (1) and 2-propanoylamine-1,4-naphthoquinone (2) derivatives from 2-amine-1 ,4-naphthoquinone were synthesized, and their antitumor activity in mice bearing Sarcoma 180 tumor were examined. In addition, hematology and biochemistry analyses, as well as, histopathological and morphological analyses were performed in order to evaluate the toxicological aspects of the naphthoquinones treatment. Both naphthoquinones showed potente antitumor activity. The inhibition rates were 33.48 and 42.35% for (1) and 37.65 and 55.24% for (2) at the dose of 25 and 50 mg/kg/day, respectively. In the histopathological analysis, the naphthoquinones showed only weak toxicity. Neither enzimatic activity of transaminases (aspartate aminotransferase-AST nor alanine aminotransferase-ALT), urea level nor hematological paramenter were significantly modified after naphthoquinones treatment. These data reinforce the anticancer potential of naphthoquinones derivatives. (9)
Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Laboratório de Controle da Expressão Gênica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Bloco C, Cidade Universitária, CEP 21949-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Metastasis is the major process responsible for the death in cancer patients. In the search for more effective antineoplasic drugs, many substances are under investigation, among them lapachol. This study aims to examine the molecular and morphological alterations caused by lapachol treatment, as well as its effects on the intrinsic tissue invasive property of this cell line. HeLa cells were exposed to different concentrations of lapachol, and the resulting alterations on cellular protein profile, morphology and invasiveness property were studied. At 400 microg/ml, cellular viability remains unchanged, but lapachol induces alterations in the protein profile and inhibits the invasiveness of HeLa cells in CAM model. With these results, we can conclude that lapachol has a great potential of application in fighting metastasis. (10)
Department of Chemistry, Lucknow University, Lucknow 226007, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
The synthesis and evaluation of some 2-substituted-1,4-naphthoquinones 2, S-(1,4-naphthoquinon-2-yl)-mercaptoalkanoic acid amides 4, related benzoquinone and naphthoquinone derivatives 6-9 and 2,3-disubstituted 1,4-naphthoquinones 10-11 were carried out. The antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer activities were determined by using the standard assay. The results show that compounds 2b and 10a showed in vitro antiviral activity against Influenza-A Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus and possess pronounced antifungal profile whereas 4a showed anticancer activities against Lymphoid Leukaemia P 388. (11)
Lapachol has been used as a topical barrier to trematodes specifically Shcistosoma mansion, which causes schistosomiasis. This parasite lives in water and enters the host by penetrating through the skin. This pathogen can cause a complicated disease, which can sometimes be fatal. Also it is stated that oral lapachol formulation to be effective against skin penetration. In addition, lapachol is claimed to have some effect against Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes trypanosomiasis or Chaga’s disease. (12)
The biological activities of the naphthoquinones lapachol and its cyclization product beta-lapachone, extracted from trees of the genus Tabebuia, have been intensively studied. Given continuity to the studies about heterocyclic derivatives obtained from the reaction of these naphtoquinones with amino-containing reagents, 22 derivatives of beta-lapachone, nor-beta-lapachone and lapachol were synthesised and their activities against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi were evaluated. The compounds were grouped as oxazolic, imidazolic, phenoxazinic, indolic, pyranic and cyclopentenic derivatives. The variability of the new structures is based on the great electrophilicity of 1,2-quinoidal carbonyls towards reagents containing nitrogen or carbon as nucleophilic centres. In relation to the trypanocidal activity of the synthesised compounds, in view of their structural diversity, tendencies only could be verified. Among the cyclofunctionalised products the oxazolic and imidazolic derivatives showed +/- 1.5 to 34.8 times higher activity than crystal violet, the standard drug for the sterilization of stored blood. These results corroborate the tendency of trypanocidal activity in imidazolic skeletons, and indicate that this moiety could be used as a guide for architectural delineation of molecules with potential value for the chemotherapy of Chagas disease. (13)
1. Duke JA. CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1985, 470-1.
2. Guiraud P, Steiman R, Campos-Takaki GM, et al. Comparison of antibacterial and antifungal activities of lapachol and beta-lapachone. Planta Med 1994;60:373-4.
3. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994, 180.
4. Oswald EH. Lapacho. Br J Phytother 1993/4;3:112-7.
5. Kung HN, Yang MJ, Chang CF, Chau YP, Lu KS. In vitro and in vivo wound healing-promoting activities of beta-lapachone. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008 Oct;295(4):C931-43. Epub 2008 Jul 23.
6. Son DJ, Lim Y, Park YH, Chang SK, Yun YP, Hong JT, Takeoka GR, Lee KG, Lee SE, Kim MR, Kim JH, Park BS. Inhibitory effects of Tabebuia impetiginosa inner bark extract on platelet aggregation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation through suppressions of arachidonic acid liberation and ERK1/2 MAPK activation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Nov 3;108(1):148-51.
7. Park BS, Lee HK, Lee SE, Piao XL, Takeoka GR, Wong RY, Ahn YJ, Kim JH. Antibacterial activity of Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC (Taheebo) against Helicobacter pylori. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 21;105(1-2):255-62. Epub 2005 Dec 15.
8. Park BS, Lee KG, Shibamoto T, Lee SE, Takeoka GR. Antioxidant activity and characterization of volatile constituents of Taheebo (Tabebuia impetiginosa Martius ex DC). J Agric Food Chem. 2003 Jan 1;51(1):295-300.
9. Bezerra DP, Alves AP, de Alencar NM, Mesquita Rde O, Lima MW, Pessoa C, de Moraes MO, Lopes JN, Lopes NP, Costa-Lotufo LV. Antitumor activity of two derivatives from 2-acylamine-1, 4-naphthoquinone in mice bearing S180 tumor. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2008;7(2):113-21.
10. Balassiano IT, De Paulo SA, Henriques Silva N, Cabral MC, da Gloria da Costa Carvalho M. Demonstration of the lapachol as a potential drug for reducing cancer metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2005 Feb;13(2):329-33.
11. Tandon VK, Singh RV, Yadav DB. Synthesis and evaluation of novel 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives as antiviral, antifungal and anticancer agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Jun 7;14(11):2901-4.
12. Schmeda-Hirschmann, G.; Papastergiou, F.Z. Naturforsch. 2003, 58c, 495.
13. Pinto CN, Dantas AP, De Moura KC, Emery FS, Polequevitch PF, Pinto MC, de Castro SL, Pinto AV. Chemical reactivity studies with naphthoquinones from Tabebuia with anti-trypanosomal efficacy. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000 Dec;50(12):1120-8.