Carbonyl iron in BoostIron™ has a lot of unique benefits in comparison to other forms of iron: it is NON-TOXIC, contains 98% pure iron and much less likely to cause constipation and diarrhoea. This product has been manufactured using high quality raw materials in a strict compliance with GMP and TÜV regulations.
Iron plays a special role in human life. Iron armors protected knights from the fatal wounds in ancient times, but even nowadays the iron shield is vital for everyone. Iron is crucial for every kind of living organism to transport oxygen (through the hemoglobin in animals and humans) and to produce energy (through electron transfer in the mitochondrial respiratory chain). In addition, iron is essential for many metabolic processes, including DNA repair and replication, regulation of gene expression and so on. (1)
According to World Health Organization data, iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world. About 30% of world’s population have iron deficiency anemia.
Anemia is a condition where red blood cells are not providing adequate oxygen to body tissues.
First of all the hemoglobin (the oxygen carrying pigment in the blood) synthesis is impaired. As the result the organs and tissues get less oxygen, which can lead to hypoxia, which negatively affects the function of many organs and reduces the quality of life. All the symptoms of anemia are developing gradually, and thus can be very dangerous. Many people who have iron-deficiency anemia don’t realize it.
The most common symptoms are feeling tired and weak, paleness of skin, shortness of breath, dizziness, abdominal pain, and lack of appetite. Other symptoms may include headache, feeling irritable. The skin is dry, nails break easily, and there are problems with hair – hair split and fall out. Changes of sense of smell and taste may be other signs of iron-deficiency anemia.
Iron deficiency forces cells to preserve what little iron they have and to maintain essential functions by dramatically reducing the activity of more than 80 different genes.
Iron deficiency is known to diminish various aspects of immune function.
Some researches suppose that children and teenagers with iron deficiency can have learning difficulties, because iron takes part in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, particularly dopamine.
The hemoglobin level is decreasing gradually, that is why many people get used to the condition. Even if the hemoglobin level is very low, rapid fatigability is often explained by stress and overwork, which are typical for modern lifestyle.
If you noticed some of above-listed symptoms, please contact your doctor! It maybe the sign of iron deficiency and early diagnosis will help you recover faster.
The main causes of iron deficiency are poor absorption of iron by the body, inadequate daily intake of iron, or blood loss.
Who is most likely to develop iron deficiency anemia?
High-risk groups include: women of child-bearing age who have blood loss through menstruation, especially young women who deprive themselves of food in order to lose weight; pregnant or lactating women who have an increased requirement for iron; infants, children, and adolescents in rapid growth phases. Risk factors are related to blood loss and some conditions, such as peptic ulcer disease. Iron’s absorption is also impaired if the gastric juices acidity is low. Any abnormalities in the gastrointestinal tract could alter iron absorption and result in iron-deficiency anemia.
Vegetarians are at risk of developing anemia. This usually occurs because they do not eat meat, (especially red meat which is high in iron). Infants living in inner city areas may be at increased risk of iron-deficiency anemia and suffer more often from developmental delays as a result. (2, 3) Supplementation of infant formula with iron up to 18 months of age in inner city infants has been shown to prevent iron-deficiency anemia and to reduce the decline in psychomotor development seen in such infants. (4)
Santegra®’s product – BoostIron™ has been developed to prevent iron deficiency anemia.
It contains 10 mg of carbonyl iron, folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin C essential for the better absorption.
Carbonyl iron has a lot of benefits in comparison with other forms of iron:
• Contains 98% pure iron;
• Does not contain iron salts;
• Carbonyl iron is less likely to cause constipation and diarrhea, a significant problem with iron salt supplements;
• Carbonyl iron is a form of iron easily absorbed by the body.
Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, prevents free radical damage, supports the immune system and increases body’s defense against infections.
The dose-dependent enhancing effect of native or added ascorbic acid on iron absorption has been shown by researchers. (5)
Folic acid is important for the blood production (essential in red blood cell formation), enhances the absorption of vitamin B 12.
Vitamin B 12 is highly biologically active vitamin, aids in forming red blood cells, supports the immune system. Vitamin B12 also helps in the functioning of the nervous system and together with vitamin C and folic acid takes part in metabolizing protein and fat in the body.
Iron is critical for all cells. Not surprisingly, therefore, iron deficiency anemia independently increases morbidity and mortality. There are an estimated 2 billion iron deficient people worldwide, the vast majority in developing countries.
Most adults have at least 3000 mg (45mg/Kg) elemental iron in their bodies. Females generally have lower levels than males because of the iron loss during menses, pregnancies, and lactation. Within that pool of total body iron, approximately two-thirds is contained in heme (mostly incorporated in erythrocyte hemoglobin) and one-third in the storage forms of ferritin or hemosiderin. To maintain adequate supplies of iron for heme synthesis, 20 mg of iron is recycled daily, from senescent red cells that are removed from the circulation, to new cells in the bone marrow. Iron from those older cells is loaded by macrophages onto transferrin for delivery to the bone marrow. Around 1-2mg/day of additional dietary iron is needed to balance losses in urine, sweat, and stool. (6)
Iron is essential for oxygen transport in the blood. Iron is the central atom of the heme group, a metal complex that binds molecular oxygen in the lungs and carries it to all of the other cells in the body that need oxygen to perform their activities.
In the stomach iron molecules from food are transformed from ferric iron into easy absorbable ferrous iron, which is later absorbed in the upper part of intestine. If the blood has too little iron the absorption increases, if iron is in abundance, the absorption decreases.
Transferrin, the principal iron transporter in the blood and other body fluids, distributes iron throughout the body, principally to the red blood cell precursors in the bone marrow for hemoglobin synthesis. Although the body can store some iron, if the need for iron is higher than the reserve, the level of hemoglobin drops, and the iron deficiency is developing.
To determine if elemental carbonyl iron powder is safe and effective therapy for iron deficiency anemia, 20 nonanemic and 32 anemic volunteers were studied. Single doses of 1,000 to 10,000 mg of carbonyl iron (15 to 150 times the 65 mg of iron in the usual dose of ferrous sulfate) were tolerated by nonanemic volunteers with no evidence of toxicity and only minor gastrointestinal side effects. Anemic volunteers (menstruating women who had previously donated blood) were treated with several regimens providing 1,000 to 3,000 mg of carbonyl iron daily in one to three doses for 8 to 28 days. After 12 weeks anemia was corrected in 29 of 32 patients, and serum ferritin was greater than 12 micrograms/L in 14. Hemoglobin regeneration proceeded at a rate similar to that described for therapy with oral iron salts and parenteral iron dextran. There was no evidence of hematologic, hepatic, or renal toxicity, but mild gastrointestinal side effects occurred in a majority of anemic volunteers. Carbonyl iron is an effective, inexpensive treatment for iron deficiency anemia, is accompanied by tolerable side effects and may have an advantage over therapy with iron salts by substantially reducing or eliminating the risk of iron poisoning in children. (7)
The effectiveness of elemental, nontoxic carbonyl iron in replacing iron lost at blood donation was examined. In a randomized double-blind design, 99 women, aged 18 to 40, were given placebo or low-dose carbonyl iron (100 mg orally) at bedtime for 56 days after phlebotomy. Compliance was equivalent for the two regimens. Mild side effects were slightly greater with carbonyl iron. At Day 56, estimated net iron absorption from therapy or diet, or both, was sufficient to replace iron in 85 percent of those receiving carbonyl iron but in only 29 percent of those taking placebo (p less than 0.001).
It can be concluded that short-term carbonyl iron supplementation in female blood donors can replace the iron lost at phlebotomy, protect the women against iron deficiency, and enhance their ability to give blood. (8)
The treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children usually consists in the use of ferrous sulfate solution, but this treatment does not always have the desired effectiveness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chewable carbonyl iron tablets as an alternative for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in under six-year-old children. Seventy-three children from Brazilian Family Health Units in Santa Maria, Brazil, were included in this study. One group received chewable carbonyl iron (CI) tablets and a control group received a solution of ferrous sulfate (FS) for 90 days, both at a dose of 5 mg/Kg/day. Blood was drawn from study participants at 0, 30 and 90 days of treatment to evaluate the whole blood test, ferritin concentration, serum iron, and total iron binding capacity. We also evaluated the acceptance and adherence to treatment, and the occurrence of side effects during treatment. Hemoglobin increased 1.3 g/dL in the CI Group and 1.2 g/dL in the FS group during the first 30 days of treatment. After 90 days of treatment, the CI Group had significantly better results for hematocrit, MCV, MCH, iron binding capacity and ferritin concentration compared to the FS Group. The ferritin concentration was significantly higher in the CI Group at the end of the treatment (9.51 ng/mL to 26.16 ng/mL). Additionally, the treatment was better accepted with fewer adverse effects by this group. Chewable carbonyl iron tablets should be considered an important therapeutic option in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia of under six-year-old children. (9)
Research has shown iron deficiency to be associated with impaired brain function, and iron deficiency in children can result in impaired learning ability and behavioral problems. Supplementation of iron has been shown to prevent iron-deficiency anemia and to reduce the decline in mental development.
In one study, the effects of iron supplements were tested in adolescent girls with non-anemia iron deficiency to see if they might improve cognition. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjects were randomized to receive iron supplements or placebo for eight weeks. Of the 81 enrolled girls with non-anemic iron deficiency, 78 (96%) completed the study (39 in each group). Postintervention hematological measures of iron status was significantly improved in the treatment group (serum ferritin 27.3 vs 12.1 micrograms/L, p < 0.001).
Those with iron supplementation were reported to perform significantly better than those in the placebo group on tests related to verbal learning and memory. (10)
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of iron supplementation compared with control on exercise performance in women of reproductive age.
Iron supplementation improved both maximal exercise performance, demonstrated by an increase in maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) [for relative VO2 max, MD: 2.35 mL/(kg ⋅ min); 95% CI: 0.82, 3.88; P = 0.003, 18 studies; for absolute VO2 max, MD: 0.11 L/min; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.20; P = 0.01, 9 studies; for overall VO2 max, SMD: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.62; P = 0.005, 20 studies], and submaximal exercise performance, demonstrated by a lower heart rate (MD: -4.05 beats per minute; 95% CI: -7.25, -0.85; P = 0.01, 6 studies) and proportion of VO2 max (MD: -2.68%; 95% CI: -4.94, -0.41; P = 0.02, 6 studies) required to achieve defined workloads. Daily iron supplementation significantly improves maximal and submaximal exercise performance in in women of reproductive age, providing a rationale to prevent and treat iron deficiency in this group. (11)
Iron plays an important role in body defense and is essential for normal immune system development where its deficiency may result in an inadequate immune response. Fifty children with iron deficiency anemia (< 18 years) and 25 age and sex-matched healthy children were enrolled, and a complete history was obtained, and clinical examination was performed. Complete blood count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and serum ferritin, were performed. Flow cytometric determination of peripheral blood CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ T-lymphocytes and CD19+ B-lymphocytes and CD4/CD8 ratio were done.
Patients had significantly lower hemoglobin, serum iron, ferritin levels and higher lymphocytic count compared with controls (p = 0.001, 0.03, 0.001, 0.001 respectively). CD3 count and percentage were significantly lower in iron deficiency anemia patients compared to controls (p = 0.007 and 0.005 respectively). There was a significant reduction in the CD4 count, percentage and CD4/CD8 ratio in patients compared with controls (p = 0.001, 0.001 and 0.005 respectively) while there was no significant difference regarding CD8 count and percentage. No significant difference between the two studied groups regarding either CD19 count or percentage (p = 0.28 and 0.18 respectively) were found.
Iron deficiency anemia is associated with impaired cell-mediated immune response, specifically T-cell mediated immunity. (12)
1. Sigismond Lasocki, Thomas Gaillard, and Emmanuel Rineau. Iron is essential for living! Crit Care. 2014; 18(6): 678. Published online 2014 Dec 8. CDC
2. Hurtado EK, Claussen AH, Scott KG. Early childhood anemia and mild or moderate mental retardation. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:115-9.
3. Roncagliolo M, Garrido M, Walter T, et al. Evidence of altered central nervous system development in infants with iron deficiency anemia at 6 mo: delayed maturation of auditory brainstem responses. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:683-90.
4. Williams J, Wolff A, Daly A, et al. Iron supplemented formula milk related to reduction in psychomotor decline in infants from inner city areas: randomised study. BMJ 1999;318:693
5. Birgit Teucher, Manuel Olivares, Héctor Cori. Enhancers of Iron Absorption: Ascorbic Acid and Other Organic Acids. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2004 Nov;74(6):403-19.
6. Michael Alleyne, MD,a,c McDonald K. Horne, MD,b and Jeffery L. Miller, MDc. Individualized treatment for iron deficiency anemia in adults. Am J Med. 2008 Nov; 121(11): 943–948.
7. V R Gordeuk, G M Brittenham, C E McLaren, M A Hughes, L J Keating. Carbonyl Iron Therapy for Iron Deficiency Anemia. 1986 Mar;67(3):745-52.
8. V R Gordeuk, G M Brittenham, J Bravo, M A Hughes, L J Keating. Prevention of Iron Deficiency With Carbonyl Iron in Female Blood Donors. Transfusion. Mar-Apr 1990;30(3):239-45
9. Iria L. G. Farias; Elisangela Colpo; Salimara R. Botton; Rosirene B. Silveira; Adriane Fleig; Carlos Andre A. Schimitz; José Edson P. Silva. Carbonyl iron reduces anemia and improves effectiveness of treatment in under six-year-old children. Rev. Bras. Hematol. Hemoter. vol.31 no.3 São Paulo 2009 Epub June 19, 2009.
10. A B Bruner, A Joffe, A K Duggan, J F Casella, J Brandt. Randomised Study of Cognitive Effects of Iron Supplementation in Non-Anaemic Iron-Deficient Adolescent Girls. Lancet. 1996 Oct 12;348(9033):992-6.
11. Sant-Rayn Pasricha, Michael Low, Jane Thompson, Ann Farrell, Luz-Maria De-Regil Iron Supplementation Benefits Physical Performance in Women of Reproductive Age: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Nutr. 2014 Jun;144(6):906-14.
12. Sanaa S Aly, Hanan M Fayed, Ahlam M Ismail, Gehan L Abdel Hakeem. Assessment of Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subsets in Children With Iron Deficiency Anemia. BMC Pediatr. 2018 Feb 12;18(1):49.